Al-Qamar http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar <p>Research Journal <strong>"Al-Qamar",</strong> Lahore <strong>(ISSN: Print 2664-438X , Online 2664-4398)</strong> is a double blind peer-reviewed open access journal. "It is approved by <strong>Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC) in Y category</strong>. Editor of the journal is <strong>Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Manj.</strong></p> <p>The journal is multidisciplinary publication covering all areas of Islamic learning and related branches of knowledge including subjects such as Quran, Ḥadīth, Sīra, Fiqh and Islamic Law, Sufism, Philosophy and theology, Classical and contemporary Muslim thought and issues related to Muslim societies.</p> <p>The journal aims at addressing the issues related to Islam and Muslims. It welcomes the manuscripts dealing with range of areas mentioned above and presenting the reflections useful in global and Pakistani context.</p> <p>The journal accepts the submissions in three languages (Urdu, English and Arabic). If you are considering submitting an article to the Journal, please take a careful notice of the Journal's requirments about its scope and refferene style etc.</p> <p> </p> alqamarinstitute@gmail.com en-US Al-Qamar 2664-438X Rules of Evidence: A Comparative Study of Al-Majallah al-Aḥkām al-Adaliyyah (1876) and Indian Evidence Act (1872) http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar/article/view/418 <p>This paper analyzes the rules of evidence as articulated in Indian Evidence Act (IEA) 1872 and the Ottoman Civil Code known as <em>Al-Majallah al-A</em><em>ḥkām al-Adaliyyah </em>(<em>Majallah</em>). Both laws were enacted in the same era, i.e., 1870s, and have enjoyed a considerable influence. Their spatial proximity makes a case for their content analysis in a comparative manner. They have evolved similar rules in some areas, while differed on others. They are averse to hearsay evidence, and allow it occasionally. They follow comparable rules in the domains of admissions and presumptions. They recognize the concept of documentary evidence. Both laws are founded considerably differently in some important respects, such as, competency of witnesses, number of witnesses, and relevancy of facts and reliability of evidence. While specific number as well as gender of witnesses is pre-requisite for proving civil cases in the <em>Majallah</em>, the IEA emphasizes on quality of evidence instead of quantity and gender of witnesses. The administration of oath to the parties is one of the grounds for decision under the <em>Majallah</em>, but it is conspicuously absent from the IEA. Despite introductory nature of this study, the paper enriches academically about the considerations and thoughts shaping two great legal traditions, i.e., Islamic law and common law, for discovery of truth in litigious matters<em>.</em></p> Dr. Shahbaz Ahmad Cheema Copyright (c) 2021 "Al-Qamar" https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-15 2021-03-15 4 1 1 18 Protection of Fundamental Rights in Pakistan: A Study of the Development of Pubic Interest Litigation http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar/article/view/373 <p><em>The Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973 (Constitution, 1973) pledges for the fundamental rights with the guarantee and enforcement mechanism thereof. However, these rights could not have been enforced properly because of socio-economic, lego-political and constitutional issues. Since, t</em><em>he Supreme Court of Pakistan (Supreme Court) </em><em>has always been mindful to such critical condition concerning fundamental rights. It has persistently been conscious for the need of an innovative judicial Public Interest litigation is a new constitutional approach of adjudication for the protection of fundamental rights in Pakistan. The </em>present research seeks to pose, and critically examine the question, that ‘When, the PIL strategy having the feature of inquisitorial justice system, was originally encrypted in the adversarial justice system of Pakistan. It finds that although the PIL strategy in Pakistan was properly introduced in Benazir Bhutto (1988) and Darshan Masih (1990), it has its origins in early human rights judicial jurisprudence as developed by Superior Courts in the 1960s. Such development has the constitutional justification which however, is suggested to be exercised within the constructional parameters. Undoubtedly, such trend of exercising the discretionary PIL jurisdiction will ultimately ensure the justice for all, one of the prime objectives of the PIL. Though the development of PIL has been continued during the last three decades, it is still in developing stages and vague in Pakistan. It, therefore, needs to be made more comprehensible for the courts and other concerned.</p> Dr. Barkat Ali Dr. Hafiz Aziz-ur-Rehman Copyright (c) 2021 "Al-Qamar" https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-15 2021-03-15 4 1 19 30 Islamic Banking Products: A Comparative Study of the Perception of Bankers & Scholars http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar/article/view/472 <p>The objective of the current study is to compare the perceptions of two important segments i.e. Islamic bankers and Islamic scholars concerning the financing products provided by Islamic banks, to assess their basis whether financing products are trade-based or interest-based. It examines difference in general perception, generic underlying mechanism of offered products, and suggestive measures regarding Islamic banking products. Data was collected from Islamic bankers and Islamic scholars using a self-administrated structured questionnaire. Data of 200 respondents was analyzed using descriptive statistics, reliability, and paired sample t –test. Results indicate a considerable difference between bankers and scholars view for Islamic banking products in terms of general perception, generic underlying mechanism of offered products, and suggestive measures.</p> Dr. Ashfaq Ahmad Dr. Waqas Farooq Muhammad Imran Copyright (c) 2021 "Al-Qamar" https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-15 2021-03-15 4 1 31 44 Islamic Perspective on Confession to a Police Officer: An Appraisal of Qānūn-e-Shahādat Order (1984) http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar/article/view/387 <p>Indian Evidence Act 1872 (IEA, 1872) modified as <em>Q</em><em>ā</em><em>n</em><em>ū</em><em>n-e-Shah</em><em>ā</em><em>dat</em> Order, 1984 (Q.S.O, 1984) was one of the major laws altered in Pakistan with the intention of bringing them in conformity with Islamic injunctions. This study intends to explore whether the provision of the referred law saying: “No confession made to a police officer shall be proved as against a person accused of any offence”, conforms to the Injunctions of Islam? It finds that the referred provision is against Islamic teachings, as it creates suspicion about police officers which is sin. It cannot be presumed that all confessions made to police officers are procured dishonestly or by unfair means. The fact that some elements are founded in police having involvement in corrupt practices of torture may not be applied as a general rule. There are number of honest police officers deserving credit in the context of performing their professional duties.</p> Dr. Muhammad Asad Dr. Barkat Ali Mr. Muhammad Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 "Al-Qamar" https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-15 2021-03-15 4 1 45 54 Transgender Harassment in Punjab: A Study of Islamic and Social Perspectives http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar/article/view/358 <p>This paper investigates Islamic and social perspectives on transgender harassment in Punjab. The nature of the study was quantitative and the sample of 344 respondents was selected from 36 districts of Punjab Province by stratified random sampling. The tool for data collection was a questionnaire and data was analyzed through Regression Analysis. The results of the study revealed that most of the respondents were illiterate, and suffered from sexual harassment. Socio-cultural and educational services are extremely constrained for a person with a transgender identity. They are known as 'abnormal' and ultimately become vulnerable to sexual harassment. The findings of the present study conclude that transgender experience sexual harassment at an early age because of their gender identity and there is no space for them in educational institutions as well. Because of low education, they indulge in dance begging, or sex work and experience sexual harassment. Moreover, the study suggests that for coping with the sexual harassment issue of transgender state should adopt the Islamic code of conduct.</p> Waqas Ali Khan Copyright (c) 2021 "Al-Qamar" https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 4 1 55 70 Sociological Concept of Health: An Analytical Approach to Cognitive Therapeutics and Prophetic Assessments http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar/article/view/361 <p>This article provides the fundamental aspects of healthcare in context of its sociological discipline. It includes the systemic collection and evaluation of integral parts of biomedical and sociological concepts of healthcare and their amalgamation in making a therapeutic plan to provide the fastest recovery to remedy seekers. The importance of assessment regarding the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats associated with personnel, environmental and sociological issues has also been discussed, along with the advantages of its implementation in current healthcare system to attain maximum beneficial effects. This study also provides an insight into the pragmatic insights of Prophetic assessments in which the Holy Prophet PBUH provided remedies to the seekers after evaluating their physical as well as sociological factors, particularly the ones associated with their presented complaints. By finding the importance of sociological concept of health in accordance with Sunnah, this research peeps through the cognitive and behavioral ways of modern therapeutics. It concludes that besides treating the diseased part of patient’s side, the team of healthcare professionals must pay heed towards the mind, spirit and emotions of the patients.</p> Hafiz Adil Jahangir Dr. Humaira Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 4 1 71 88 سیرتِ نبوی پر استشراقی نظریات کا ناقدانہ جائزہ : "محاضراتِ سیرت" کا خصوصی مطالعہ http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar/article/view/343 <p>This paper studies the response of <em>Dr. Ma</em><em>ḥmood Ahmed Ghāzī </em>(1950-2010), a well-known Pakistani jurist and scholar, to the orientalists’ criticism on <em>S</em><em>īrah</em> of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ), in his “<em>Mu</em><em>ḥāḍrāt-e-Sīrat</em>”. The study reveals that <em>Gh</em><em>āzī</em> has scholarly responded the orientalists’ objections on Prophetic <em>S</em><em>īrah</em>. He proves that orientalists’ claims such as Quran was written by Muhammad himself; the <em>ḥadīths</em> were unreliable; the sources of Prophetic biography were unauthentic; the Prophet after migrating to Medina became a worldly king; the Prophet belonged to an inferior clan; he adopted polygamy for his sexual desires, etc., are the results of their prejudices and misunderstandings. In many places it seems that they have distorted the facts.</p> Dr. Samina Saadia Muhammad Usman Khalid Copyright (c) 2021 "Al-Qamar" https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-15 2021-03-15 4 1 1 12 پاکستان کی زرعی مارکیٹنگ میں مروج تول، چونگی اور آڑھت کا کاروبار : سماجی اور شرعی تناظر http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar/article/view/470 <p>This paper studies the Business of weighing<em> Chung</em><em>ī</em> and <em>Āṛ</em><em>hat</em> in Pakistan's agricultural marketing from social and<em> Shar</em><em>īʻ</em><em>ah</em> perspectives. It finds that from the referred perspectives these businesses are permissible only if <em>Ā<strong>ṛ</strong></em><em>hat</em><em>ī</em> (middleman) does not attain the property of farmer or trader without their permission nor does he take advantage of their compulsion, nor does the weigher lose the weight. If, in a business deal, consent is obtained by taking advantage of someone's compulsion, or by seizing a portion of one's property by deception, or by reducing the weight of one's property, then the dealing will absolutely illegitimate. If this is not the case and the farmer or trader deals with the middleman with free will, the weigher does his job honestly and takes his wages, then all these jobs will be valid and permissible according to <em>Shar</em><em>īʻ</em><em>ah</em> and social norms. As for the fatwas in which any of these businesses declared absolutely illegal are not, in our view, in line with <em>Shar</em><em>īʻ</em><em>ah</em> principles. It seems that the real thing to consider in such matters is to keep in mind the <em>Shar</em><em>īʻ</em><em>ah</em> values and their philosophies, not any specific name or tradition.</p> Dr. Allah Bakhsh Najmi Dr. Hafiz Abdul Rashid Dr. Abdul Razzaq Azad Copyright (c) 2021 "Al-Qamar" https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 4 1 13 20 حد سرقہ سے متعلق فقہی مباحث اور ان کے معاصر اطلاقات : "المحلیٰ" اور "الہدایہ " کے تناظر میں ایک مطالعہ http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar/article/view/409 <p>This paper studies jurisprudential discourses on the punishment of theft and their contemporary applications in context of “<em>Kit</em><em>āb al-Sariqah”</em> from “<em>al-Mu</em><em>ḥallā</em>”, a manual of <em>Zahirite</em> or literalist school of Islamic Jurisprudence by <em>Ibn </em><em>Ḥazm</em> (994-1064), and “<em>al-Hid</em><em>āyah”,</em> a manual of <em>Ḥanafī</em> Jurisprudence by <em>al-Margh</em><em>īnānī</em> (1117-1197). It finds that in a total of eighty-two issues, the two jurists have six commonalities and thirteen differences while <em>Ibn Ḥazm</em> has eight and <em>al-Marghīnānī</em> has thirty-seven unique points. <em>Al-Marghīnānī</em> has more comprehensiveness and diversity in the accounts of the relevant issues. Both jurists’ insights regarding the punishment of theft can be taken as a guide in various matters related to the crime of theft in modern times.</p> Abdul Ghaffar Dr. Abdul Ghaffar Copyright (c) 2021 "Al-Qamar" https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 4 1 21 32 اسلامی ریاست میں غیر مسلموں کے معابد سے متعلق روایتی اسلامی موقف کی تفہیم http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar/article/view/426 <p>This article is an attempt to understand the traditional Islamic position regarding non-Muslim temples in an Islamic state. Exploring the variations in the referred perspective it concludes that according to the traditional stance it is not permissible to build non-Muslim temples in the cities inhabited by Muslims and in the cities that have been forcibly taken over by Muslims. However cities which have been acquired by the Muslims through reconciliation by the condition that the land will remain in possession of non-Muslims and Muslims will be given <em>Jizyah</em>, they can build temples as the land belongs to them and the cities that have been acquired by the Muslims through reconciliation and by the condition that the land will be the property of the Muslims and the Muslims will be paid <em>Jizyah</em>, there they will be dealt with according to what was promised to them. In the present context, according to the proponents of the traditional position, Muslim-administered areas where non-Muslims live can build temples according to their population and needs with the permission of Muslim rulers. In view of the current situation in Pakistan, it has been said that non-Muslims can build temples according to their needs, but these temples should not be built with public funds.</p> Atta Ur Rehman Dr. Mushtaq Ahmad Dr. Muhammad Ahmad Qadri Copyright (c) 2021 "Al-Qamar" https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 4 1 33 40 تاریخی شہر مکہ کے ادارہ جاتی نظم کے خدو خال اور قصی بن کلاب کی مساعی http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar/article/view/475 <p>Due to the extraordinary importance of Mecca in Islam and the world history, discovery of the traces of its ancient civilization is of paramount importance. The significance of this kind of investigation is doubled when the qualities of a leader, belonging to the ancestors of the Prophet of Islam are being highlighted. <em>Qusai Ibn Kil</em><em>āb</em>, one of the ancestors of the Prophet, was a person whose character must be understood in the context of cultural history of Mecca. In this perspective, the present paper explores the institutional system of the historic city of Mecca and the efforts of <em>Qusai Ibn Kil</em><em>āb</em> in this regard. The study discovers that, in those days, the chief of the tribe called <em>sheikh </em>was looked upon with great respect. He never used his authority against his tribe, nor did he fall prey to any conspiracy that would bring disrepute to his tribe. <em>Sheikh</em> <em>Qusai Ibn Kil</em><em>āb</em>, after assuming the leadership in Mecca, rendered valuable services to the people of the city. His efforts had far-reaching effects, the biggest result of which was love and affection and a sense of sacrifice for each other. The fragmented power of the tribes was consolidated. If such activities are started in a society and every status bearer participates in them, the dream of prosperity and development of the relevant society can be very much fulfilled. From <em>Qusai's</em> golden role, the study deduces that every dignitary and noble person in the society should play a full role in restructuring and welfare of his nation</p> <p> </p> Dr. Muhammad Haroon Dr. Qazi Furqan Ahmad Dr. Sohail Akhtar Copyright (c) 2021 "Al-Qamar" https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 4 1 41 52 اسلامی مالیات : معاصر اداروں کا تعارفی مطالعہ http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar/article/view/345 <p>This paper aims at presenting an introductory study of contemporary Islamic financial institutions. It finds that after political weakness of the Islamic world and domination of Western colonialism, the Islamic economic system was largely ignored at the governmental level. Today, especially in the last half of the last century, a new wave of awareness, consciousness and enthusiasm has given rise to a number of important steps, including the establishment of financial institutions where Muslims conduct their financial affairs in accordance with Islamic teachings. Contemporary Islamic economy and finance is very successful in achieving its desired position and is rapidly gaining a foothold in the global economy. Islamic Financial Services Industry (IFSI) is offering legitimate alternatives to almost all sectors of the current economic system. Islamic financial industry is a perfect system in terms of its size, comprehensiveness and versatility. This industry includes central and subsidiary Islamic financial institutions that are endeavoring to provide professional services in all financial fields in accordance with <em>Shar</em><em>īʻ</em><em>ah </em>principles.</p> Tahir Mahmood Shaheeda Rasheed Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 4 1 53 64 اسلام -مغرب تعلقات:محمداسدکے نقطۂ نظر کاتقابلی مطالعہ http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar/article/view/441 <p>This article is a study of the views of Muhammad <em>Asad</em> (1900-1992) regarding relationship between Muslim and western worlds. It makes a comparison of <em>Asad’s</em> view with some other distinguished scholars like <em>Dr. Mahmood Ahmad Gh</em><em>āzī</em>, <em>Marmaduke Pikthal </em>etc. Quoting <em>Asad</em> and other scholars it concludes that West had been picking &amp; choosing the beneficial particles from Muslim Civilization in the field of science and civilization. But in modern age when West has become in the position to give its science and technology to the Muslim world, it ruins political liberty of the Muslim world and destroy it spiritually and culturally. The West demanded from Muslim world to give up its cultural heritage and adopt western ideologies and ways of life with the claim that it is the only way of progress for the Muslims. <em>Asad</em> emphasizes on reconciliation between Muslim and Western worlds for better future of the human race. He says that despite their differences Muslims and the West may make friendly relation with each other. However he states that fundamental barrier between good relations of both the worlds is overwhelmed enmity and phobia of the West against Islam and Prophet of Islam. So it is mandatory for reconciliation and good relation amongst both the worlds that such irrational and unethical hostility, hatred and phobia of the West against Islam be deleted first. He says that in the prejudiced and hostile atmosphere they could never attain the goal of reconciliation. <em>Asad</em> expresses his distinctive opinion that West has the most powerful and dominant position in political, economic and technological spheres of life, hence it must take first step for the purpose of reconciliation between Islamic world and western worlds. He further emphasizes that for the better relation between both the worlds, the west should also give up the dual standard to deal with Muslim world. He also advises Muslims that they should explain and interpret Islam in such a way that may be easily understandable for the western world.</p> Muhammad Rashid Dr. Jamil Ahmad Nutkani Dr. Abdul Wahab Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 4 1 65 78 اختلافِ قراءات کےتفسیری اثرات: "حاشیۃالجمل" کے منتخب مباحث کا مطالعہ http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar/article/view/510 <p><em> </em></p> <p>Variant readings of the Quran and their interpretive effects are discussed in different commentaries of the Quran. This paper studies the selected discussions in this regard from <em>Ḥā</em><em>shia al-Jamal</em> by <em>Sulaim</em><em>ā</em><em>n Ibn </em><em>ʻ</em><em>Umar al-Jamal</em> (1204 AH), a commentary on prominent <em>tafs</em><em>ī</em><em>r</em> work <em>al-Jal</em><em>ā</em><em>layn</em> by <em>Jal</em><em>ā</em><em>l al-D</em><em>ī</em><em>n al-Ma</em><em>ḥ</em><em>all</em><em>ī</em> (791AH-864AH) and <em>Jal</em><em>ā</em><em>l al-D</em><em>ī</em><em>n al-Suy</em><em>ū</em><em>t</em><em>ī</em> (849AH-911AH). It concludes from a study of three selected verses: <em>al-Baqarah</em> 37, 148 and <em>Ā</em><em>l-e-Imr</em><em>ā</em><em>n </em>81, that the frequent readings have interesting and constructive effects on <em>Qur’</em><em>ā</em><em>nic</em> exegesis. The study finds that in the Islamic world <em>Qir</em><em>āʻā</em><em>t </em>by the majority of <em>Q</em><em>ā</em><em>r</em><em>ī</em><em>s</em> is common and reliable. Although the interpretations of the under discussion two variant readings are different, both are accurate and reliable in their respective positions and are included in the ten frequent readings. Therefore, accepting both as correct would be an accurate decision according to Quran and hadiths of the Prophet (ﷺ).</p> Abdul Nasir Qammar Aziz Dr. Matloob Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 4 1 79 88 حدیثِ بخاری "من عادی لی ولیا" کی ثقاہت کا مسئلہ:جاوید احمد غامدی کے نقطۂ نظر کا تجزیاتی مطالعہ http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar/article/view/537 <p>This paper studies the perspective of <em>J</em><em>ā</em><em>ved Ahmad Gh</em><em>ā</em><em>mid</em><em>ī</em> (b.1951), a Pakistani modernist scholar<em>, </em>on the issue of the authenticity of a <em>Ḥ</em><em>ad</em><em>ī</em><em>th</em> from <em>Bukh</em><em>ā</em><em>r</em><em>ī</em> “<em>Man </em><em>ʻ</em><em>ada</em><em>ī</em><em> l</em><em>ī</em><em> waliyyan”</em>. It concludes that <em>Gh</em><em>ā</em><em>mid</em><em>ī</em> has denied the referred <em>Ḥ</em><em>ad</em><em>ī</em><em>th</em> because of his personal inclination, as no one among the Imams has denied this <em>Ḥ</em><em>ad</em><em>ī</em><em>th</em>. As for the denial of <em>al-Dhahab</em><em>ī</em> is concerned, it is investigated that if he found it in <em>Musnad Ahmad</em>, he would not hesitate to accept it. Moreover this <em>Ḥ</em><em>ad</em><em>ī</em><em>th</em> is not only found in <em>Bukh</em><em>ā</em><em>r</em><em>ī</em> and <em>Musnad </em>but also in many other sources. It is ironic that not all the narrators of the <em>Ḥ</em><em>adiths</em> which <em>Gh</em><em>ā</em><em>mid</em><em>ī</em> himself accepts are free from the interrogation. Furthermore, he himself has taken the <em>Ḥ</em><em>ad</em><em>ī</em><em>ths</em> of the narrators of which Imam <em>al-Dhahabi</em> has questioned. He is rejecting the referred <em>Ḥ</em><em>ad</em><em>ī</em><em>th</em> on behalf of <em>Khalid Ibn </em><em>Mukhlid</em>, but he himself is quoting his narration, which has even many other chains also. All these facts speak that <em>Gh</em><em>ā</em><em>mid</em><em>ī</em> has set his own criteria for accepting the <em>Ḥ</em><em>ad</em><em>ī</em><em>ths </em>which is unknown to traditional <em>Ḥ</em><em>ad</em><em>ī</em><em>th</em> experts.</p> Hussain Akram Mohayyodin Dr. Mohib ul Nabi Tahir Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Abrar Awan Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 4 1 89 102 مغل برصغیر میں مذہبی رواداری اور علمی و سماجی ترقی : غیر مسلم مورخین کی آرا کا مطالعہ http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar/article/view/334 <p>The present study investigates the perspectives of Non-Muslim historians regarding religious tolerance and scientific and social development in the Mughal Subcontinent. It traces the relationship between Mughals' tolerant attitude and the development of the subcontinent. It finds that Mughals gave rise to a culture in which the color of tolerance was prominent. Unlike the British, Mughals did not try to impose their language and culture on the Indians by force, but by tolerance they won their hearts and left a significant impact on the subcontinent. Non–Muslim historians have proved that the interfaith harmony of the Mughals played an important role in the development of the subcontinent. Findings of this study can be a rich source of guidance and inspiration to create interfaith harmony in the present day societies.</p> Mahtab Azam Dr. Arshad Munir Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 4 1 103 112 طرق التفسير عن ابن عباس من حیث الصحۃ والضعف http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar/article/view/352 <p><em>ʻ</em><em>Abdull</em><em>ā</em><em>h Ibn</em><em>ʻ</em><em>Abb</em><em>ā</em><em>s,</em> one of the cousins of Holy Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ), is considered to be the greatest <em>Mufassir</em> of Quran. The Prophet had prayed a special prayer for him to understand the Quran. Due to his outstanding knowledge of <em>Qur</em><em>’ā</em><em>nic</em> interpretation and traditions he won the title of <em>Ḥ</em><em>ibr al-Ummah</em> (a great scholar and doctor of Muslim <em>Ummah</em>).The present article investigates the chains of <em>Tafs</em><em>ī</em><em>r</em> on the authority of <em>Ibn </em><em>ʻ</em><em>Abbas</em>, in terms of authenticity and weakness. Aim of this study is to link the Muslim Ummah with authentic traditions in order to eliminate the divisions among the Muslims. The study reveals that everything narrated on the authority of <em>Ibn </em><em>ʻ</em><em>Abbas</em> or attributed to him in <em>Tafs</em><em>ī</em><em>r</em> is not correct and accurate. The true accounts on the authority of <em>Ibn </em><em>ʻ</em><em>Abbas</em> are five which are narrated on the authorities of <em>Muj</em><em>ā</em><em>hid Ibn Jabr, </em><em>ʻ</em><em>Al</em><em>ī</em><em> Ibn Ab</em><em>ī</em><em> Tal</em><em>ḥ</em><em>ah, </em><em>ʻ</em><em>Ikrimah, At</em><em>āʻ</em><em> Ibn Ab</em><em>ī</em><em> Rab</em><em>ā</em><em>h, </em>and<em> Sa</em><em>ʻī</em><em>d Ibn Jubayr</em>, and the rest are among the weak, rejected or fabricated.</p> Dr. Hafiz Qudratullah Dr. Attiq ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 4 1 1 14 الغزل العذري عند الشواعر عبر العصور http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar/article/view/485 <p>The platonic spinning is characterized by purity, chastity, transcendence in feelings, and great spiritual strength, but this life does not eliminate the woman as the second party in the experience of love, because this condemns the experience to perversion. The spinning is represented in three: the platonic spinning, the sensual or physical spinning, then the mystical spinning which expresses love towards the divine self. In this work the use of platonic spinning in different ages of poetry has been discussed. Moreover, the fact that how different categories of platonic spinning have added a magical essence in poetry, has also been under consideration.</p> Dr.Salma Shahida Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 4 1 15 28 نور الحسن الأويسي ومخطوطتہ "نور الواعظین": دراسة تمھیدیۃ http://alqamarjournal.com/index.php/alqamar/article/view/549 <p><em>Sheikh Nūr al-Ḥasan al-Uwaisī </em>(1268AH-1348AH) was a great religious scholar of the subcontinent and an icon of spiritualism. He was also an expert of <em>Qur’</em><em>ānic</em> sciences. In this area of knowledge he wrote an exegesis titled “<em>N</em><em>ūr</em> al-<em>W</em><em>āʻiẓīn</em>". Unfortunately <em>Sheikh al-</em><em>Uwaisī’s</em> achievements particularly his referred work was unknown to scholarly world. “<em>N</em><em>ūr</em> al-<em>W</em><em>āʻiẓīn</em>" was written almost a century ago, but is not yet available in print. It is the need of the time to introduce this great scholar and bring out his magnum opus “<em>N</em><em>ūr</em> al-<em>W</em><em>āʻiẓīn</em>" before the scholarly world. So, the present article centers a brief exploratory study of <em>Sheikh al-</em><em>Uwaisī </em>and his achievements particularly his referred <em>tafs</em><em>īr </em>manuscript. It maintains that “<em>N</em><em>ūr</em> al-<em>W</em><em>āʻiẓīn</em>" consists of various unique characteristics and therefore is a blessing for students and scholars that they must take advantage of.</p> Sadia Nasrullah Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 4 1 29 40