Al-Qamar <p>Research Journal <strong>"Al-Qamar",</strong> Lahore <strong>(ISSN: Print 2664-438X , Online 2664-4398)</strong> is a double blind peer-reviewed open access journal. "It is approved by <strong>Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC) in Y category</strong>. Editor of the journal is <strong>Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Manj.</strong></p> <p>The journal is multidisciplinary publication covering all areas of Islamic learning and related branches of knowledge including subjects such as Quran, Ḥadīth, Sīra, Fiqh and Islamic Law, Sufism, Philosophy and theology, Classical and contemporary Muslim thought and issues related to Muslim societies.</p> <p>The journal aims at addressing the issues related to Islam and Muslims. It welcomes the manuscripts dealing with range of areas mentioned above and presenting the reflections useful in global and Pakistani context.</p> <p>The journal accepts the submissions in three languages (Urdu, English and Arabic). If you are considering submitting an article to the Journal, please take a careful notice of the Journal's requirments about its scope and refferene style etc.</p> <p> </p> en-US (Dr Muhammad Shahbaz Manj) (Al-Qamar Islamic Research Institute, 60/D Marghzar Colony, Multan Road, Lahore) Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Muslim Perspective of Western thought on Human Nature: A Study of Muhammad Rafī-ud-Dīn’s Discourse <p>This paper is a study of the thoughts of <em>Dr. Muhammad Raf</em><em>ī-ud-Dīn </em>(1904-1969), a prominent Muslim theorist and philosopher of subcontinent, about human nature and his refutation of Western thinkers on the subject. It finds that modern world view and episteme do not consider Man as the crown amongst all the creations. All the eminent Western psychologists and writers on Human Nature agree that man possesses an urge for ideals which is responsible for his all kinds of activities. According to Freud it is the sexual instinct, Adler relates this urge to the self-assertion and ego, McDougall thinks it the outcome of a combination of all the instincts. Karl Marx reveals that ideals are rooted in the economic urge of man while Darwin already had declared Man as a result of an automatic evolutionary process. These theories had played an important role in creating the world view or weltanschauung of the man of 20<sup>th</sup> century. But this explanation of Human Nature has deprived Man from his classical position of spirituality and morality and has depicted him as a social animal that is driven by his instincts consciously or unconsciously. The <em>Qur’</em><em>ānic </em>concept of Human Nature as explained by <em>Dr. Muhammad Raf</em><em>ī-ud-Dīn</em> proves that the urge for ideals is the real, the ultimate and the sole dynamic power of human actions and it find its roots not in instincts but in something transcendent and metaphysical.</p> Dr. Muhammad Awais Shaukat, Dr. Humaira Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Sat, 29 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Coronavirus: A punishment, Trail or Message from Allah? An overview of Islamic Teachings <p>The aim of this research is to find out Islamic teachings regarding the current pandemic of Covid-19 that whether it is punishment or trial or message from Allah? Starting with the description of corona virus as disease and its effects, the article gives a picture of Islamic teachings followed by findings and conclusion. It shows that regardless of the difficulties we are facing in Covid-19, Allah wants to draw His servants close to Him, and intends good for them. We must draw solace from the fact that Allah shows more mercy to His servants compared to a mother’s mercy for her child. To deal with hardships and earn Allah’s pleasure, we must regularly offer our gratitude towards Allah. This will also improve our health, both physically and mentally. Allah has promised the protection of His servants that ask for His mercy and forgiveness. Just like other calamities this pandemic can be face with piety, repentance, and patience. Along with faith in Allah, we should show clinical attitude in dealing with the pandemic, we should follow the guidelines of health experts, and take necessary measures along with rely upon Allah.</p> Dr. Farhat Nisar, Dr. Hafiz Abdul Rashid, Dr. Mehboob Ali Shah Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Sat, 29 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring Metaphors in the Embroidery of the Punjab: A Study of the Inscriptions at Bahāuddīn Zakariyā Shrine <p>This study is all about the investigation of symbolic representation of inscriptions at <em>Bah</em><em>āuddīn Zakariyā</em> &amp; <em>Shah Rukn-i-</em><em>Ālam</em>, their relation to religion and culture as Multan was the main route where business took place. Additionally, Sufi culture &amp; faith of regional occupants also had an effect on these symbols. Multan remains acclaimed for its shrines; mainly, <em>Bah</em><em>āuddīn Zakariyā</em> &amp; <em>Shah Rukn-i-</em><em>Ālam</em> which is taken as an inspiration to discover a connection between visual (design) and literary (inscriptions) references translated in thread crafts of Multan. Inscriptions and calligraphy contain symbolism connecting from <em>Qur’</em><em>ānic</em> verses to plants, seeds, birds and animals. Crafts visual vocabulary is constructed with it.</p> Wardah Naeem Bukhari, Prof. Dr. Shahida Manzoor Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Sun, 30 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge Sharing in Pakistani Universities and its Islamic Motives: An Empirical Study of Teachers’ Behaviours <p>This study revolves around the conducts of university teachers and the responsibilities that Islam has posed upon them regarding knowledge sharing. Islam has given the responsibilities to scholars and teachers to spread the knowledge to the community. It is the religious obligation of teachers to convey the knowledge to the humanity for the sake of awareness and consciousness. The study empirically investigates the knowledge sharing behaviours of university teachers in Pakistani universities. It also investigates the ways and channels of communication that university teachers adopt for the sake of knowledge sharing. 1130 university teachers were the sample of this study. Tool of the study was a questionnaire having two parts; Likert scale questionnaire and open-ended questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed with the help of SPSS. Results show that Pakistani university teachers involve themselves in knowledge sharing activities to fulfill their religious obligation. They also have positive behaviour regrinding knowledge sharing activities.</p> Dr. Samina Kausar, Dr. M. Tariq Mehmood Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Sun, 30 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Social media in the development of Islamic branding and its impact on purchase and repurchase intention for Ḥalāl Products: A Uses and Gratification Perspective <p>This paper investigates the role of social media in the development of Islamic branding and <em>Ḥalāl </em>marketing strategies. The proposed framework argues that Islamic branding has significant impact on <em>Ḥalāl</em> goods purchasing and repurchasing (hereafter PRP) decisions. It also studies the effects of social networks’ satisfaction on the process of PRP of products and services, based on the Uses and Gratification Theory (hereafter UGT). An online survey of 344 participants was done with data analyzed using the partial least squares structural equation modeling technique in order to evaluate the relationship of social media usage, purchase, re-purchase and social media user satisfaction. Finally, it was empirically demonstrated that the gratification experienced by users through social media usage influences purchase intention. According to UGT, the findings contribute to how social media influences alternative assessments through the gratification of user needs, resulting in actions and motives leading to the purchase of products and services.</p> Sanan Waheed Khan, Dr.Tahir Mahmood, Dr. Deeba Shahwar Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 تلاوتِ قرآن میں الحان، موسیقی اور مقامات کی شرعی حیثیت: قائلین ومانعین کےدلائل کاجائزہ <p>The Quran, due to its unique rhythmic style of expression, seems to have a deep connection with music and elegance of voice, on the other hand, Islam has various teachings regarding the prohibition of music and songs. In this context, there has been a debate among Islamic scholars as to whether it is permissible to use the principles of music, <em>Muq</em><em>āmāt</em> and melodies in the recitation of the Quran? Some scholars are convinced of the <em>Shar</em><em>īʻah </em>legitimacy of the use of music, <em>Muq</em><em>āmāt</em> and melodies in the recitation of the Quran but some scholars do not consider it permissible. This study is an attempt to discover the factual <em>Shar</em><em>ʻīah</em> stance on the subject by analyzing the arguments of both groups of scholars. It supports the viewpoint of the opponents, but also tries to reconcile the two positions. It maintains that there is nothing wrong with reciting the Quran in a beautiful voice but it must be free from those forms of music which are not adored in Islamic <em>Shar</em><em>īʻah.</em></p> Muhammad Sher Rabana, Dr. Muhammad Feroz-ud-Din Shah Khagga Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Sat, 29 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 اُردونعتیہ قصیدہ:موضوعاتِ تشبیب اور ان کے تخلیقی محرکات <p><em>Qa</em><em>ṣī</em><em>da</em> is a significant genre of poetry. It was mainly devoted to eulogizing kings, heroes, nobles, Prophets, sages and saints. Urdu <em>Na</em><em>ʻ</em><em>tiya Qa</em><em>ṣī</em><em>da</em>, a subgenre of Urdu <em>Qa</em><em>ṣī</em><em>da, </em>praises Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ). It has a variety of themes. <em>Tashb</em><em>ī</em><em>b</em> is a part of <em>N</em><em>aʻ</em><em>tiya Qa</em><em>ṣī</em><em>da.</em> It consists of complex stanzas that serve a preceding event or introduce what follows. Urdu poets have fully demonstrated their artistic and poetic skills in <em>N</em><em>aʻ</em><em>tiya Qa</em><em>ṣī</em><em>da</em>. This paper studies the themes of Urdu <em>N</em><em>aʻ</em><em>tiya Qa</em><em>ṣī</em><em>da</em> and its creative stimulations. It explores that different themes are there in <em>Tashb</em><em>ī</em><em>b</em> of <em>Na</em><em>ʻ</em><em>tiya Qa</em><em>ṣī</em><em>da.</em> There are <em>Tashb</em><em>ī</em><em>bs</em> with spring, wisdom, advice, morals, adoration, pride, civilization, philosophy, grievances of the time etc. The theme of spring landscaping has been written by different poets in different styles, which is adorned with high imagination, exaggeration, forcefulness and majestic rhetoric. Adoring <em>Tashb</em><em>ī</em><em>b</em> aims at getting the attention of the readers. The themes of pride and grievances of the time actually show the poet’s sense of inferiority. <em>Mun</em><em>ī</em><em>r Shikohab</em><em>ā</em><em>d</em><em>ī</em> and <em>Mo</em><em>ḥ</em><em>sin K</em><em>ā</em><em>korv</em><em>ī</em> expanded the canvas of <em>Na</em><em>ʻ</em><em>tiya Qa</em><em>ṣī</em><em>da</em> by adopting the themes related to politics and local Indian civilization. <em>Az</em><em>ī</em><em>z Lucknow</em><em>ī</em><em>, Nazm Tab</em><em>ā</em><em>tab</em><em>ā’ī</em><em>, </em><em>ʻ</em><em>Al</em><em>ī</em> <em>Ḥā</em><em>mid Sandelv</em><em>ī</em><em>, Far</em><em>ī</em><em>d M</em><em>ā</em><em>nak P</em><em>ū</em><em>r</em><em>ī</em> and <em>Iqb</em><em>ā</em><em>l Sohail</em> wrote philosophical thoughts on the creation of the universe and on life and death.<em> Kh</em><em>ā</em><em>lid Ahmed</em> has introduced the features of modern <em>Qa</em><em>ṣī</em><em>da</em> by adopting simplicity in various <em>Bah</em><em>ā</em><em>riya Tashb</em><em>ī</em><em>bs</em>, but there is still ample scope for new experiments in this genre of Urdu Poetry.</p> Navid Ahmad, Dr. Rukhsana Bibi, Dr. Shehzad Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Sat, 29 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 خواجہ فخر الدین دہلوی: خدمات اورسماجی اثرات <p>This article studies <em>Khw</em><em>ā</em><em>jah Fakhr-ud-D</em><em>ī</em><em>n Dehlav</em><em>ī</em><em>’s </em>(1717-1784) services and their impact on the society. It explores that <em>Dehlav</em><em>ī</em> worked hard to promote the accurate Islamic teachings based on Quran and Sunnah of the Prophet. He revealed the awareness of what true faith and what the believer's relationship with his Lord was! He tried his best to save the society from instability by creating interfaith and intra-faith harmony. He conveyed his message to the royal palaces and apprised the rulers of their weaknesses. He authored several books on reforming beliefs and morals of the masses. He brought Shia sect closer to him. His hard work greatly helped to confiscate intolerant attitudes from the society.</p> Sadia Noreen, Dr. Humayun Abbas, Muhammad Amir Hamza Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Sat, 29 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 امریکہ میں اسلام کی تاریخ و اشاعت: ایک مطالعہ <p><em>Da</em><em>ʻ</em><em>wah</em> and preaching is one of the important teachings of Islam. It provokes its followers to convey its message to the whole of humanity. In this context, Muslims have been striving to spread it to different individuals and nations from the very beginning. Numbers of works have been done on the spread of Islam in different areas of the world. This article is a study of the history and spread of Islam in United States of America. It discovers that Chinese, Hispanics and African Muslims came to America before Christopher Columbus. They kept relations here according to their rituals and did trade. Columbus discovered America in 1492 with a crew in which Muslim astronomers were present. In 16<sup>th</sup> and17<sup>th</sup>’s centuries, the black people of North Africa were captured and brought to America as slaves in whom 30% were Muslims. Islam got solid identification in USA due to these African slaves. Some of them were Islamic scholars and have relation to royal families. A strong white inviter to Islam, was Alexander Russell Web (1846-1916), who accepted Islam in (Manila) Philippines in 1886, working as diplomat of America. He announced in 1893 on national and international platforms that Islam is the best religion in the whole world. First Muslim mosque was built in U.S in1886 in Lowa and the 2<sup>nd</sup> was in1890 in North Dakota. 19 mosques were there in this country till 1930. Black Muslim leaders like Elijah Muhammad, his son Warith Deen Muhammad and FaraKhan played important role in organizing black Muslims and Nation of Islam. Due to NOI, Malcolm X and Muhammad Ali boxer and Mike Tyson accepted Islam. Immigrated Muslims came to U.S from 1865 and onward and founded lot of Islamic centers, mosques, organizations and educational institutions. In modern-day America immigrated Muslims have been playing effective role in every sphere of American life. Along with tracing the history of the advent of Islam in United States, the present article hints at a brighter future for Islam and Muslims in this country.</p> Muhammad Yousaf, Dr. Sajid Iqbal , Dr. Sohail Akhtar Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Sat, 29 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 خواتین کو نبوی ہدایات: عبادات سے متعلق احکام و فرامین کا مطالعہ <p>Islamic rules for men include women in general, but Islam also pays a special attention to addressing women in various matters. In the Quran and Prophetic traditions and directions, we find many instructions in which special attention is paid to the education of women. This article is the study of the commands and advices of the Prophet to women regarding worship, particularly concerning the pillars of Islam. It finds that the Prophet guided women in the issues related to <em>Sal</em><em>āt, Zakā, Sawm and Ḥajj</em>. These teachings to women about the mentioned forms of worship are a way to dispel misconceptions and <em>Bid</em><em>ʻāt</em> regarding <em>ʻIbādāt</em>.</p> Dr. Sajjad Ahmed, Mati ur Rehman, Basharat Rafique Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Sat, 29 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 اردو ادب میں مذہبی رجحانات: بیسویں صدی کی منتخب خواتین افسانہ نگاروں کا مطالعہ <p>This article discusses the religious trends of selected twentieth century women Urdu fiction writers. Focusing on <em>Akhtar Jam</em><em>āl, Jilānī Bāno, Qurratulain Hayder, Hājra Masroor, Khadīja Mastoor, Bāno Qudsia, Khālida Hussain, Jamīla Hāshmī, Sāira Hāshmī,</em> it explores that firm belief in Allah Almighty, respect for humanity, moral values ​​and deference for women are prominent subjects in these women’s fictions. They have deep spiritual experiences of realities of life and Universe. Not only spiritual and esoteric observations, but conditions associated with them are skillfully described in their fictions. These writers have developed Islamic propensity in the genre of Urdu fiction, by writing comprehensively on a number of themes related to Islamic ideology.</p> Shazia Andleeb, Dr.Sadaf Naqvi Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Sat, 29 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 اردو تصنیفاتِ سیرت: ملا واحدی کی "حیاتِ سرورِ کائنات " کا مطالعہ <p>This article presents a study of “<em>Ḥayāt-i-Sarwar-i-Kā’ināt</em>”, an Urdu book on <em>S</em><em>īrah</em> of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ), by <em>Mull</em><em>ā Wāḥidī</em> (1888-1976), a prominent author and journalist of Indo-Pak subcontinent and a disciple of renowned Indian Sufi saint <em>Khw</em><em>āja Ḥassan Nizāmī</em> (1873-1955). The Study finds the book unique in terms of its style and content. The author has presented the themes in simple, literary and attractive way. Each and every event of the life of the Prophet is stated in the form of a comprehensive essay. Views of various writers have been reproduced to strengthen the arguments. All the related events have been described systematically. <br /><br /></p> Mahboob Alam, Dr. Muhammad Ibrahim , Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Shahbaz Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Sun, 30 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 صحابہ کرام کے سوانحی حالات: "نقوش" رسول نمبر کا مطالعہ <p>"<em>Nuq</em><em>ū</em><em>sh</em>", a prominent literary Urdu magazine, published various special issues like <em>Ghazal Number</em>, <em>Afs</em><em>ā</em><em>na Number</em>, <em>Gh</em><em>ā</em><em>lib Number</em>, <em>Iqbal Number</em>, <em>Ras</em><em>ū</em><em>l Number</em> etc. The last mentioned issue gained special fame. This 13-volume issue, along with the life and <em>S</em><em>ī</em><em>rah</em> of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ), contains very important biographical sketches of his companions. This article attempts to present a study of these sketches scattered in different volumes. The study first gives the accounts of the Righteous Caliphs, then of the other Companions including wives and daughters of the Prophet.</p> Muhammd Aslam Tahir, Muhammd Usman Khalid, Dr. Syed Hamid Farooq Bukhari Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Sun, 30 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 مولانااحمد رضا خان بریلوی کے نعتیہ کلام "حدائقِ بخشش" کی شروحات کا تنقیدی و تقابلی مطالعہ <p>This article is a critical and comparative study of the commentaries of <em>“</em><em>Ḥadāʻiq-i-Bakhshish”, </em>a book of devotional poetry in praise of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) by a prominent Indian Scholar, jurist, poet and Sufi <em>Mawl</em><em>ānā Ahmad Razā Khān Barelvī </em>(1856-1921). <em>“</em><em>Ḥadāʻiq-i-Bakhshish”, </em>is most widely interpreted work in Urdu poetry after that of <em>Gh</em><em>ālib and Iqbāl</em>. As an erudite author and poet, <em>Barelv</em><em>ī</em> is not so simple for a common reader to grasp the meaning from his words and phrases. So different interpreters in different eras have endeavored to reveal the message and meaning from his works. This study identifies and critically examines thirteen interpreters’ works on <em>“</em><em>Ḥadāʻiq-i-Bakhshish”.</em> <em>Muft</em><em>ī Ghulām Yāseen Rāz Amjadī, Mirzā Amjad Rāzī, Hāfiz Zakā Ullāh Saeedī </em>and <em>Mawl</em><em>ānā ʻĀasī Karnālī </em>have been found the best interpreters. The interpretations of <em>Sufi Muhammad Awwal and Mawl</em><em>ānā Ghulām Ḥassan Qādrī </em>are although original in nature yet on various points they could not have dealt with the text as it demanded. Interpretations of<em> Muft</em><em>ī Faiz Ahmed Awaisī, Mawlānā Ghulām Ḥassan Qādrī, Muhammad Arif Mehmood Khān Qādrī, Sufi Muhammad Abdul Sattār Tāhir Masoodī, Muftī Muhammad Khān </em>and<em> Naeem Ull</em><em>āh Qādrī </em>have influence of the work of earlier interpreters. This research also points out differences and similarities found in the meanings, paraphrasing, explanations and interpretations of pertinent devotional poetic verses discussed by the referred interpreters<em>.</em></p> Waqas Sharif , Maria Abbas , Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Shahbaz Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Sun, 30 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 مسلم برصغیر میں مذہبی رواداری اور سماجی ترقی : سکندر لودھی کے دورِ حکومت کا خصوصی مطالعہ <p>This article focusing <em>Sikandar Lodh</em><em>ī’s</em> (1458-1517) reign (1489-1517) presents a study of the tolerance and social development in the Muslim Subcontinent. Introducing <em>Lodh</em><em>ī’s</em> reign, it highlights <em>Sikandar Lodh</em><em>ī’s</em> steps for the development of none-Muslims specially Hindus. It maintains that despite of some of his radical dealings, <em>Sikandar Lodh</em><em>ī</em> was a man of good character; he was a poet having excellent poems with the pseudonym <em>Gulrukh</em><em>ī.</em> In his 28 years rule, <em>Lodh</em><em>ī </em>devoted most of his time to the welfare of the people and the state; he used to distribute money, clothes, shawls cooked grain and food among the poor. He gave stipends to the poor Muslims and non-Muslims. He established mosques, madrassas and bazaars. He ensured justice. Education was made compulsory for the soldiers. As a result, Persian education became common even among the Hindus. He gave government jobs to Hindus. During his time, Sanskrit books were translated into Persian. There was no restriction on the spread of Hindu religious views during his empire. Some prominent Muslims themselves tried to understand the depths of Hinduism. It turns out that the government of the day allowed propagating religious ideas. The lives and deeds of <em>Kab</em><em>īr, Gurū Nānak, Sundar Dās</em>, etc. can be understood in the context of the religious tolerance of Muslim rulers.</p> Dr. Munazza Hayat, Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Shahbaz, Dr. Mian Saeed Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Sun, 30 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 ہبہ اور اس سے متعلق فقہی احکام : ایک تحقیقی مطالعہ <p>This article aims at explicitly explaining the Islamic concept of <em>Hibah.</em> It presents the rulings, opinions, and variant views of the jurists in detail. It has also been compared to its nearest synonyms in English language, i.e., gift and charity. The four conditions that make <em>Hibah</em> valid are discussed with evidence from Islamic jurisprudence, along with the concept of “hold” which is an obligatory aspect of <em>Hiba</em>. The concepts of “resort”, “recur”, their repercussions and the incidents in which these are allowed have also been discussed with proofs from the <em>Ḥadīth</em>. It also encompasses the social issues that may arise when <em>Hibah</em> is not done according to the principles of Islamic <em>Shar</em><em>īʻah</em>.</p> Hafiz Asif Ismail , Dr. Yasmeen Nazir, Khubaib Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Sun, 30 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 اسلامی کلچر سے متعلق مباحث میں سلیم احمد پر محمد حسن عسکری کے اثرات <p><em>Muhammad Hassan</em> <em>Askar</em><em>ī </em>(1919-1978), a well-known Pakistani literary critic, scholar and author, had a profound effect on many Pakistani writers. The present article explores <em>Askar</em><em>ī’s</em> Impact on <em>Saleem Ahmed</em> (1927-1987), a prominent Pakistani author, poet and one of the few finest literary critics of Urdu criticism. The study maintains that <em>Ahmad</em> due to <em>Askar</em><em>ī</em>’s influence, even being a registered member of progressive school of thought, criticized progressive writers throughout his life in his discussions on Islamic culture. He followed <em>Askarī</em>’s traditions in its letter and spirit. He looks a fan of <em>Ibn Arab</em><em>ī</em> and Rene Guenon. He is a critic of modernism of <em>Sir Syed Ahmad Kh</em><em>ān</em> and <em>H</em><em>ālī</em>. Like <em>Askar</em><em>ī,</em> he is in favor of Indo Islamic culture in Pakistan. Ahmad along with imitating and promulgating <em>Askari's</em> tradition also maintained and developed his own individuality in style and ideas. He also believes in literature for the sake of literature in which real life depicts.</p> Ghulam Abbas, Dr. Syed Hamid Farooq Bukhari, Dr. Sami Ullah Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Sun, 30 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 امتِ مسلمہ میں فکری اصلاح سے متعلق مسائل اور ان کا حل: نصوصِ کتاب وسنت اور مسلم اہلِ علم کی آرا کی روشنی میں ایک مطالعہ <p>This article deals with the solution of the problems related to ideological reform in Muslim <em>Ummah</em>. Studying the texts from the Quran and <em>Sunnah</em> and various scholars’ views on the subject, it finds that in Western civilization, the adoption of a materialistic and corporeal approach based on secularism and enlightenment has led to alienation from religious and spiritual values. In the context of scientific and materialistic development of the West, its cultural standards ​​greatly influenced the Islamic world, and here too the same kind of tenets began to flourish. Over time, this influence has become a serious problem. In the contemporary Muslim World, spiritual ideals ​​have turned into rituals; Muslim <em>Ummah</em> has moved away from actual religious teachings. This study suggests that Muslim scholars and mentors, in order to achieve the goal of Ideological reform, should cultivate in Muslim <em>Ummah</em> a thought based on true teachings of Quran and <em>Sunnah,</em> constructed on rational and logical arguments in accordance with the requirements of the modern age. In this regard, guidance should be sought from the work of Muslim thinkers who have done valuable work for the revival of Islam and Muslim <em>Ummah.</em></p> Dr. Mohsin Khan Abbasi Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Sun, 30 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 عصری سماجی علوم کی اسلام کاری کے اصول : اسماعیل راجی الفاروقی کے نقطۂ نظر کا مطالعہ <p>This article studies the thoughts of <em>Ism</em><em>āʻīl Rājī al-Fārūqī</em> (1921-1986), a Palestinian-American scholar and philosopher, on the principles of Islamization of modern social sciences. It argues that Modern Western sciences are based on materialism, aimed at profit, luxury and improving living standards. There is no place in these sciences for seeking God and moral values. But there is also no doubt in the fact that number of new practical questions about politics and society, have been addressed by these modern sciences. <em>Al-F</em><em>ārūqī</em> believes in the use of modern Western sciences, but emphasizes the need to reconcile religious and secular sciences. The essential elements of modern Western sciences that are in conflict with Islamic thought and philosophy should be Islamized and disseminated to the common man. To this end, <em>al-F</em><em>ārūqī</em> has outlined a number of principles, according to which Muslims have been suggested to come up with such a curriculum by critically analyzing modern Western social sciences in the light of Islamic sciences that meets with the requirements of the modern age as well is compatible with Islamic <em>Shar</em><em>īʻah</em>.</p> Dr. Serfraz Hussain Saeed, Dr. Sobia Khan, Dr. Mehboob Ali Shah Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Tue, 22 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 عورت کی مذہبی شناخت اور کردار سے متعلق فکر ِ اقبال کا مطالعہ <p>This article presents a study of the thoughts of <em>All</em><em>ā</em><em>ma Muhammad Iqb</em><em>ā</em><em>l</em> (1877-1938), a great Muslim writer, poet and philosopher of South Asia, on the religious identity and role of women. The study reveals that <em>Iqb</em><em>ā</em><em>l’s</em> poetry is full of Eastern and Islamic traditions. In the case of women too, all of <em>Iqb</em><em>ā</em><em>l’s</em> ideas are based on Eastern and Islamic traditions. He seems to say the same thing about women, which is taught by Islam. He has repeatedly mentioned women in his poetry in different ways: he mentions woman with great respect and reverence; he mentions her sometimes in the form of mother and sometimes in the form of friend; sometimes he praises her perseverance and courage and sometimes pays special attention to her education and training. According to <em>Iqb</em><em>ā</em><em>l</em>, a woman with eastern and Islamic traditions is the representative of high social values, high morals and religious traditions. He forbids Muslim women from following Western women. He wants to see her follow the great Muslim women of the past. He wants the character of today’s Muslim woman to be like that of <em>Hazrat F</em><em>ā</em><em>tima</em>, so that great characters like <em>Hussain</em> are born from her womb.</p> Dr. Rukhsana Bibi, Dr. Shazia Umbrin Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Tue, 22 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 اسلام میں جنگ کے آدابِ:منتخب اُردوتفاسیر کا مطالعہ <p>Etiquette of war has been an important topic of discussion in various circles from the very beginning. This debate has become increasingly important in modern times. It is said by the opponents of Islam that Islam and Muslims have abandoned the etiquette of war and allowed oppression and aggression. Among the Muslim scholars who have contributed to this debate is a section of <em>Qur’</em><em>ā</em><em>nic</em> commentators. This article presents a study of Urdu commentaries on the subject under consideration. Six Urdu commentaries have been selected for this study. Arguments quoted from selected Urdu commentaries reveal that infidels with whom the Muslims have a peace treaty cannot be fought unless they themselves have broken the covenant, nor can the people of the enemy who take refuge in them be killed. Reconciliation with the infidels will not be initiated during the war, unless there is a great compulsion, but if there is an offer of peace from the infidels, it will not be rejected. Non-combatants will not be killed intentionally. It is not permissible to cut down or damage trees and crops from enemy territory on the basis of retaliation alone, although war tactics can be used to cut down trees that impede military movement. No human will be burned alive or burned in the fire after death. However, the use of firearms in modern times is not against the etiquette of war in Islam. Orientalists have objected that Muslims were naturally prone to looting and war but the <em>Qur’</em><em>ā</em><em>nic</em> words "وَهُوَ كُرْهٌ لَكُمْ" depicts that they dislike war. It is clear from this study that in the selected Urdu commentaries, a successful attempt has been made to prove the moral superiority of Islam and Muslims regarding etiquettes of war.</p> Muhammad Shafique Ahmed, Professor Dr. Mustafeez Ahmad Alvi Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 برصغیر کی مذہبی ، علمی اور ثقافتی تاریخ کی تحقیق میں شیخ محمد اکرام کا اسلوب اور خصائص <p>Among the studies that have come to light on the religious, cultural and intellectual history of the subcontinent, the three books (<em>Ā</em><em>b-i-Kawsar, R</em><em>ū</em><em>d-i-Kawsar </em>and<em> Mawj-i-Kawsar</em>) by <em>Sheikh Muhammad</em> <em>Ikr</em><em>ā</em><em>m</em> (1908-1973), a renowned Pakistani historian and biographer, are unique in nature. This paper presents a study of <em>Ikr</em><em>ā</em><em>m</em><em>’</em><em>s</em> methodology and characteristics of his writing in the referred works. From the two parts of this study, the first deals with the biographical outline and scholarly position of <em>Sheikh Mohammad Ikr</em><em>ā</em><em>m</em> and the second part explains the methodology and features of his works. The study finds that <em>Ikr</em><em>ā</em><em>m’s</em> style in his referred works is academic, critical and literary, as well as lively, comprehensive and fascinating. While studying his writings, the reader walks with him throughout the history. He analyzes historical situations and personalities as a critic and then draws conclusions in such a way that the reader becomes imperceptibly convinced of his arguments.</p> Kanwal Hameed, Dr. Shahida Yousaf Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 ابو الحسن علی ندوی کی سیرت نگاری: "نبیِ رحمت" کا خصوصی مطالعہ <p>This article aims to highlight the exclusive characteristics of <em>S</em><em>īrah</em> writings of <em>Mowl</em><em>ānā Syed Abu al-Ḥassan ʻAlī Nadvī</em>, (1914-1999), an eminent Indian Islamic scholar, focusing his book “<em>Nab</em><em>ī-i-Rahmat</em>”. It finds that <em>Nadv</em><em>ī</em> not only narrates the life aspects of the noble character of the Prophet (ﷺ) but also presented the logical and rational explanation of the sacred life. The book is adorned with all historical and scholarly themes relevant to the <em>S</em><em>īrah</em> of the Prophet. The study suggests that the book should be included in the curriculum of educational institutions, colleges, universities and madrassas, and short summaries and pamphlets should be prepared to acquaint students with the themes and message of the book.</p> Abdul Qayyum, Dr. Aqeel Ahmad Qureshi Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 پا کستان میں اسلامی تہذیب سے متعلق تصنیفی و تحقیقی کام:نمایاں رجحانات کا مطالعہ <p>This paper studies the notable trends in Compilation of literature on Islamic Civilization in Pakistan. In this study, fifty books written on different languages ​​on Islamic civilization were selected and analyzed From all this research, four trends of scholarly work on Islamic civilization came to light (introductory, historical, comparative, impactful). The study also introduces readers to previous work on Islamic civilization. The current research article is written in the context of the studies which are available in Arabic, English and Urdu languages, keeping in mind the importance of such trends and need of their analysis in evolution of respective area of study. The article comprises of three parts. In first part, the subject of research is introduced and importance of background of the work is elaborated. The second part includes a comparative evaluation of the scholarly work done in Arabic, English and Urdu languages. The conclusion is drawn and some consequent suggestions are proposed in third part of the article.</p> Jawaad Haseeb, Dr. Muhammad Riaz Mahmood Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 نور الحسن نور کی نعت میں سیرت نگاری <p><em>Na ̒t</em> is considered as the most sacred tribute of a poet to Prophet Mohammad and thus involves an emotional attachment rather than a critical approach, yet as to the extent of <em>Noor-ul-Hassan Noor Nawabi Azizi's Na</em><em>̒tiya</em> poetry, it encapsulates marvelous tradition of novel subjects on the character, mental and physical behavior of the Holy Prophet. This article tends to explore the variety of subjects in a more to the point approach. Noor's <em>Na</em><em> ̒t</em> comprise over a wonderful array of character objectivity.</p> Tayyaba Nighat, Shazia Adnan, Shaziz Andleeb Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 عجز و تعجیزاور اس سے متعلقہ قواعد شر عیہ: ایک مطالعہ <p>This article studies <em>‘</em><em>jz and Ta</em><em>‘</em><em>j</em><em>ī</em><em>z</em> and relevant <em>Shar</em><em>ī‘</em><em>ah</em> Maxims. It maintains that easiness and concession is promoted by Islam in ‘<em>Ib</em><em>ā</em><em>d</em><em>ā</em><em>t</em> (acts of worship), <em>Mu</em><em>‘ā</em><em>mal</em><em>ā</em><em>t</em> (Transactional dealings).This concept is endorsed by the Qur’ānic verses and Hadiths. Hardship and difficulties are alleviated by <em>Shar</em><em>ī‘</em><em>ah</em>. There are many cases where alternatives are created. Many contracts are allowed for grant of easiness and for the removal of hardships from the people. Therefore this article will explain the Jurisprudential concept of <em>‘</em><em>jz and Ta</em><em>‘</em><em>j</em><em>ī</em><em>z</em><strong> عجز</strong><strong> وتعجیز)</strong>) and the related maxims of <em>Shar</em><em>ī‘</em><em>ah</em> as they are very important in the development of <em>Fiqh</em>. Many prepositions can be solved through these rules.</p> Shams ul Arfeen, Dr. Arshad Munir Laghari Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 الخصائص المنھجیۃ للشیخ عبدالحکیم السیالکوتی فی ضوء حواشیہ: دراسۃ خاصۃ لحاشیتہ علی المطول <p> “<em>Al-Mutawwal” </em>by <em>Al-Taft</em><em>ā</em><em>z</em><em>ā</em><em>n</em><em>ī</em> (1322-1390), a Muslim Persian polymath, is a magnum opus on grammar, rhetoric, theology, logic, law and <em>Qur’</em><em>ā</em><em>nic </em>exegesis. This linguistic work has been annotated and commented upon by numerous scholars. The present paper provides methodological characteristics of the annotation of “<em>Al-Mutawwal” </em>by <em>Abdul </em><em>Ḥ</em><em>ak</em><em>ī</em><em>m Si</em><em>ā</em><em>lkot</em><em>ī</em> (1560-1657), a Muslim logician and philosopher of subcontinent and a friend and class fellow of renowned Indian scholar and Sufi <em>Mujaddid Alf-e-Th</em><em>ā</em><em>n</em><em>ī</em><em> Sheik Ahmad Sirhind</em><em>ī</em> (1564-1624). It concludes that <em>Si</em><em>ā</em><em>lkot</em><em>ī</em><em>’s</em> method is systematic and logical; he relies on original sources in rhetoric, grammar, language and literature. He has kept accuracy and honesty in mind while transmitting scholars’ opinions. His approach is characterized by freedom of opinion, extrapolation, scholarly circumspection and comprehensiveness. That’s why the referred annotation has been welcomed by the students and scholars of the relevant sciences across the globe.</p> Dr. Asif Ali Raza, Dr. Iftikhar Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Sat, 29 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 الاجواء الشعریة فی مکة قبل الاسلام <p>Pre-Islamic poetry is deliberately a criterion for the correctness and eloquence of the language, supporting the language of the Quran and its meanings, and most of this poetry was attributed to the poets of the desert. This article deals with the poetic atmosphere in pre-Islamic Mecca and sheds light on the key features of the poetry of great Meccan poets. It finds that Arabic poetry is closely allied to the history and culture of its people, the tedium of peregrine life, rising of Islam, self-creation of the deepest senses of the Arabs, self-identity, the interaction and cross fertilization with others civilization, etc. Through this study we can see the manifestations of pre-Islamic life in all its aspects and all the news and narratives that appear in the Arab thought at that time.</p> Dr. Imrana Shahzadi, Maryam Siddiqa Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar Sun, 20 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000