Al-Qamar <p>Research Journal <strong>"Al-Qamar",</strong> Lahore <strong>(ISSN: Print 2664-438X , Online 2664-4398)</strong> is a double blind peer-reviewed open access journal. "It is approved by <strong>Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC) in Y category</strong>. Editor of the journal is <strong>Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Manj.</strong></p> <p>The journal is multidisciplinary publication covering all areas of Islamic learning and related branches of knowledge including subjects such as Quran, Ḥadīth, Sīra, Fiqh and Islamic Law, Sufism, Philosophy and theology, Classical and contemporary Muslim thought and issues related to Muslim societies.</p> <p>The journal aims at addressing the issues related to Islam and Muslims. It welcomes the manuscripts dealing with range of areas mentioned above and presenting the reflections useful in global and Pakistani context.</p> <p>The journal accepts the submissions in three languages (Urdu, English and Arabic). If you are considering submitting an article to the Journal, please take a careful notice of the Journal's requirments about its scope and refferene style etc.</p> <p> </p> en-US Al-Qamar 2664-438X A Study of Radical Behaviorism in Pakistan <p>By its very nature, human behavior remains complex, which is also governed by subtle aspects of the situation or context in which they are embedded. Certain negative factors develop radical behaviorism, and these factors are the essential tasks to understand the behavioral changes in a particular environmental domain due to which radical behaviorism tends towards extremism. Sometimes this extremism leads towards terrorism which is not acceptable in any society. A person does not become radical within a day, and it is a slow and gradual process that requires a progression through distinct stages that happens nor quickly nor easily. Radicalized minds start violating laws in society that badly hit their surroundings. Most communities and individuals become resilient for Radicalization due to the exploitation of fundamental rights, undue imbalances in society, class differences, poor socio-political structure, and high illiteracy rate provide evidence to the factors shaping social practices and behaviorism. This paper focuses on radical behaviorism in Pakistan, and four types of behaviorism will be discussed here that drive balanced behaviorism towards radical behaviorism. Radical behaviorism is the problem of Pakistan, but it is a global problem, and internal and external factors are involved that spoil the thinking track of particular groups of people, especially those who are considered the most sensitive group of people. Radicalization is the opposite of pluralism that may be expressed by nonviolent density in actions that deviate from the norms and show disapproval for the present domain of life and environment.</p> Tehmina Rafiq Dr. Muhammad Kalim Ullah Khan Dr. Mehboob Ali Shah Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 1 16 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.e01 Orientalist Discourse on Partition: An Analysis of Discursive Construction of Jinnah and Gandhi in Stanley Wolpert’s “Shameful Flight” <p>The study is exploratory in nature in the interpretivist paradigm. It is based upon Critical Discourse Analysis of Stanley Wolpert’s book “Shameful Flight”. The study is qualitative with special focus on ideological construction of Gandhi and Jinnah by Wolpert. Six events have been specially focused: introduction, Cripps Mission, Satyagrah Movement, Wavell Plan, Shimla conference and Direct Action by Muslim League. Fairclough’s model has been used for discourse analysis of the selected textual items. In these sections of the book contrastive pictures of Gandhi and Jinnah have been given. Main purpose of study has been the explication of Orientalist ideology behind contrastive pictures of both the leaders. Jinnah being the leader of a minority is suppressed, rather ridiculed explicitly; while Gandhi being the nationalist is implicitly defended. The cause behind implicit defense of Gandhi on the one hand is to ridicule Muslims’ ideological stance, and on the other hand is to uphold American’s own ideological stance on partition. The purpose of the study is to foreground American’s implicit ideology about partition of subcontinent and to raise awareness about the discursive injustice to the ideology of Pakistan. The secular aspect of Jinnah’s personality is ideologically highlighted to prove Islamic ideology as hollow and abstract.</p> <p> </p> Ms. Ghulam Hafsa Dr. Qurat ul Ain Bashir Dr. Kanwal Zahra Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 17 40 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.e02 Staying Into Religious Boundaries and Bearing Polygamy: Understanding Jealousy, Marital Satisfaction, and Mental Health among Muslim Women <p>In Islamic culture, women are bound to accept more than one and up to four marriages of their husbands and this sharing may appear as a threat to them. The present study aimed to examine the jealousy, marital satisfaction, and mental health in a purposive sample of 192 women in polygamous marriages (first and second wives) with an age range of first wives 25-60 (<em>M = 40.30, SD =7.86</em>) and second wives 18-40 (<em>M = 26.60, SD =7.41</em>). The sample was drawn from Punjab. It was Correlational research with a cross-sectional design. Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale<a href="#_edn1" name="_ednref1">[i]</a>and Mental Health Inventory<a href="#_edn2" name="_ednref2">[ii]</a> along with the newly developed indigenous Jealousy Scale for polygamous women<a href="#_edn3" name="_ednref3">[iii]</a> were used as measures. Results revealed men's injustice and biased behavior toward their multiple wives cause jealousy and poor marital satisfaction in polygamous women which deteriorate their mental health. Findings showed that poor marital satisfaction mediated between jealousy and mental health (Psychological well-being and psychological distress). After controlling the poor marital satisfaction, jealousy significantly negatively predicted Mental Health (Psychological well-being) and positively predicted psychological distress but reduces the value which indicates partial mediation. The Implications of the findings were discussed for family settings, family therapists, and law advisors in the Pakistani socio-cultural context and wherever polygamy is allowed in the world. The study is also implemented to seek the original teachings and true picture of Islamic perspectives about polygamy.<a href="#_ednref1" name="_edn1"></a></p> Sabila Naseer Beenish Mubeen Ayesha Farooq Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 41 56 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.e03 A Study of Quranic Allegory, Decorative Ornaments in Female Attire miniature at museum and Architecture: Dᾱī’ Angᾱ Mausoleum & Mosque in Lahore Punjab <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Figure.6 .Verse written on front façade of Mosque Dᾱī’ Angᾱ </p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Religion have a significant aspect in changing culture and practices of region where humans live. All aspects of existence are represented by religion. This gave bases to representation of women through her dressing and house hold shores. This have been addressed in holy Quran. In which women and her representation at different areas are done in which her covering and dressing. Woman is the created by God for Adam’s employer and companion to step into humanly life to begin a family. He created woman like a gem inside the sea shell. Inspiration and interpretation of verses were adopted in Mughal aesthetic in multiple ways of art and architecture in Lahore. There is variety in adaption and effect of continuous invasions at current place where Lahore is situated in Punjab Pakistan. These cultural integration dominated as permanent marks in connection with females and there representation in Mughal remnants. Quran addresses female and there rights through verses and references. Some address directly to rights of female within society. Secondly there are metaphoric presentation of female aesthetics. One of its example is Mughal architecture Dᾱī’ Angᾱ Mausoleum Gulabi Bagh. Which is construction for female wet nurse of <u>Sh</u>ajahān son of Jahangīr.</p> Alia Hadi Ali Prof. Dr. Sumera Jawad Prof. Dr. Rafya Tahir Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 57 74 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.e04 A Political Romance of Islamic Parties in Pakistan: An Analytical Study <p>It’s a historical fact that Bhutto government introduced a number of reforms for the development of the country. However, as far as concentration of powers and prolonging his rule is concerned, he was no less than a dictator. His concentration of powers in his own person even created differences within his own party. On the other hand, the rapidly increasing inflation and law and order issues particularly the murder of some well-known personalities led to anti-Bhutto sentiments among the people. It was in these circumstances that his political opponents started a propaganda against his governance style. In the start of 1977, Bhutto announced elections before the expiry of the already serving assemblies. The opposition parties formed an electoral alliance called Pakistan National Alliance<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a> (PNA). The Alliance consisted of nine parties with a diverse set of ideologies, backgrounds, and political goals. The PNA started propaganda against the governance style of Bhutto and alleged that Bhutto would rig the upcoming elections. Despite the fact that the nine political parties adhered to different socio-political values, a slogan to Islamize the political system of the country was the most common factor among them. Thus, they promised that they will enforce Islamic laws (<a href=";action=edit&amp;redlink=1">Nizam-e-Mustafa</a>) and Sharia if came into power. Opposition to the autocratic rule by Bhutto and his party PPP seemed to be the main force holding the otherwise diverse nine political parties together.</p> Dr Mian Saeed Ahmad Noor Hamid Khan Mahsud Muhammad Naeem Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 75 90 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.e05 Socio Religious Impact and Brief History of Dār ul ̒Uloom Karāchī <p>The meaning which the word “<em>Madrassa</em>” bring forth in the Arabic language is the same which is given to word “School” in English language. Nevertheless, in olden days the word “<em>Madrassa</em>” was brought into use for the higher educational institutions in which the subject of Islamic law was taught routinely and occasionally other subjects, contrary to elementary schools which were usually recognized as “<em>Kuttab</em> or <em>Maktab</em>”. The usual word which is employed for the modern Arabic word, however is “Jamia”. Now a days, the <em>Madrassa</em> is such type of school in which Islamic law and theology is taught, usually affiliated with a Mosque and sponsored by the charitable trust which is widely known as “<em>Wafaq</em>”. Such as religious institutions brought revolutionary changes in the religious, economic and social set up of the Muslims of the Sub-Continent. Islamic culture, education and learning were promoted in the Sub-Continent with the efforts of religious scholars. When Muslims of Sub-Continent faced decline, these religious institutions also received great loss. But Muslim thinkers and Ullama motivated the “<em>Deeni Madaris</em>” without losing courage. Therefore, these <em>Madaris</em> proved extremely effective in the field of teaching and learning, the reason behind the effectiveness was the motivation of the Ullama who were playing important role. The prominent personalities like Maulana Muhammad Abid, Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi and Maulana Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi established Dar ul Uloom Deband in 1867, concentrating the religious and moral values of the Muslims. The objective of this article is to investigate the status, socio impact, and multi-dimensional role of the religious educational institution “ Jamia Dar ul Uloom Karachi” in Pakistan. Jamia Dar ul Uloom Karachi was founded by Mufti Muhammad Shafi on Shewal 11, 1370 AH. (June 1951) at Nanak Wara and later on it transferred to Korangi, Karachi, on Shaaban 15, 1376 AH. (March 17, 1957). This article will further explain how Jamia Dar ul Uloom Karachi was established in Karachi aimed prevalent Sufi shrines hegemony and practices and continued to grow in the environment. In a society, such as postcolonial Pakistan, faced with dramatic educational and strategic institutional transformation after the partition. Jamia Dar ul Uloom Karachi was able to show case itself as a different religious institution as well as imparting education in other subject too.</p> Sajjad Hussain Dr. Samia Khalid Jamil Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 91 108 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.e06 Practice of Design Principles in the Qur’ānic Calligraphy of Binqulander <p>Calligraphic art in Pakistan is one of the major art forms of Fine Arts and Design practices. It is a popular art form, because of its religious importance and secular appeal. Calligraphic art is based upon Quranic Verses written in the beautiful script. It can be called a traditional genre of art and design. This study is an attempt to explore Binqulander’s calligraphic art from aesthetic point of view as well as high scale design compositions with color and text and his work as a reflection of formal art &amp; design learning from Pakistan. The methodology adopted for this study is based upon extrinsic and intrinsic analysis. It will particularly focus on its aesthetics and underling philosophical concepts. Binqulander is one of the most renowned trendsetters of this generation.</p> Aisha Saddiqa Wardah Naeem Bukhari Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 109 122 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.e07 Art and the Writing of Sacred Words <p>This article is intended to define the artistic caliber of three calligraphists in Pakistan, Arif Khan, Tahir Mughal (Bin Qullander) and Shiblee Muneer. Their devotion to the sacred words of Holy Quran and their ability to combine the two genres; the art of painting and the art of writing (calligraphy), very lucratively and that make them exceptional. They believe the shape of letters and words from the Holy Quran are divinely intended and ordained and its elaboration in the form of calligraphic expressions endowed by the artistic language would be adequate to bring a believer into contact with the divine power. The rhythm of the calligraphy, symbolic use of forms and vibrant colors, the flow of the writing script moving from right to left side, reflect the great aesthetic sense of these calligraphists which is similar to the beauty that is known to the western world as modern abstract art.</p> Dr. Sadia Arshad Dr. Wardah Naeem Bukhari Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 123 138 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.e08 Anti-Social Behavior Among Pakistani Students: Causes and Effects in the Light of Islamic Teachings <p>There is a wide spread problem that ours in an era of violence and we are witnessing an exceptional outburst of anti -social behavior throughout the world. Young students are extensively discerned as being rowdy and anti- social as well as they commonly victimize of illegal activities. It is wide spread issue in all societies is to have practices of violence, aggression and prejudicing behavior of young students. It is experienced that sometime a person harms himself and sometimes other human being victimized. The question is what are factors causing aggression and violence among the students? The answer to this question is there are some rationales; broken family, lack of guidance, weakening of the religious practices and ethical attitudes became main causes of this most thought full problem. Anti-social behavior is strictly prohibited by Allah Almighty in Islam and social harmony and peace is encouraged by equal measure. One of the reports in Bukhari(810AD-870AD) reports from Prophet of Islam, Muhammed (PBUH) A believer is he whose other believers remain safe from the wickedness of his hand and tongue. Islam has given great stress on keeping, promoting and encouraging peace and harmony and social leniency among the people. Because Islam gives complete code of life for character building of students and its social norms and values have great significance. As well as Islam demoralize violence in sura Baqarah (205) <em>Wa Allahu la yuhibbu-al-fasad</em>. The present paper will attempt to understand a study of causes and reasons of violence and aggression among the students which has become the pressing need of today owing to the escalation of extremism and violence in the world in the light of Islamic teachings.</p> Dr. Fozia Fiaz Dr. Saeed Ahmed Saeedi Dr. Ammara Tabassum Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 139 152 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.e09 Overview of the Epidemiology of Infertility in Islamic Perspective <p>Infertility is a phenomenon that not only gives tough time to females but it equally affects male partners. Due to the quiet nature of males and communication gap with female partners they tend to hide their feelings of being incomplete and being not sharing these things could develop thoughts of suicide and can drag them to endless emotions of depression. While discussing the sexual and reproductive health noting all the facts and figures regarding maternal mortality and factors leading towards couple’s fertility it becomes necessary to discuss infertility in detail and conceptualizing this phenomenon from perspective of religion. From clinical point of view, number of couples seeking help in conceiving fall under the criteria of infertility. Although there many reasons behind infertility as sexual history, age etc. but in this paper male infertility is the focus that sub fertile men have missing Y-chromosome, which effects the number of sperms and passes the infertility to the off springs. ICSI born child are affected by abnormal structure of chromosome and increased sex chromosome disorders.</p> Dr. Muhammad Samiullah Dr. Hafiz Muhammad khan Dr. Hassan Shakeel Shah Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 153 164 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.e10 شریعت اسلامیہ میں حرمت مصاہرت کی اساسیات <p><em>Ḥ</em><em>urmat-i-Mu</em><em>ṣā</em><em>hrat</em> is explained as the ‘musaharat’ that is established through marriage or occurrence of marriage. ‘<em>Al-Mu</em>ṣā<em>harah</em>’ is a blessing of God that is proven through the Holy Quran and Sunah. It guarantees sanctity of relations. On logical grounds, we cannot deny its need, significance and usefulness. <em>Ḥ</em><em>urmat-i-Mu</em><em>ṣā</em><em>hrat</em> proves ‘<em>Ḥ</em><em>urmat-i-Mu’abbadah</em>’. It prohibits marrying four types of women namely, Mother-in-law, Daughter of the wife provided that husband had intercourse with his wife, the wife of his real son and the wives of his father and forefather. Since <em>Ḥ</em><em>urmat-i-Mu</em><em>ṣā</em><em>hrat</em>’ is connected with the problems of ‘<em>Hillat-o-Hurmat</em> thus it is imperative to inform the masses about the sensitivity of this issue and warn them to adopt cautious measures so that they do not have to repent here and the world Hereafter and be successful. This article deals with the Muslim jurisprudential foundational discourse has been rendered to focus on the spots of living life styles in the present social fabric where variety of relations are settled down under a single congested space resulting different complex situations where people are nor aware of the harmful <em>sharia</em> implications.</p> Luqman Hayder Dr. Muhammad Feroz-ud-Din Shah Khagga Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 1 18 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.u01 اصولِ تکفیر: تعارف و تجزیہ <p>The principles of <em>Takf</em><em>īr</em> internally reflect the legislative conscienceless. In these principles the ingredients of <em>īmān</em> are determined in a manner that in case of denial one does not remain as <em>mu’min</em>. This has nothing to do with what relates with heart; as it is purely a legal domain. But the matter of <em>Takf</em><em>īr</em> cannot firmly be devoid of heart-related injunctions because it means negation of <em>īmān</em> that is a heart-relating matter. To ensure the balance between <em>Takf</em><em>īr</em> having ostensible and legislative feature, and <em>īmān</em>, that relates with heart, is a complex point where one among <em>ẓāhir</em> (ostensible) and <em>b</em><em>āṭin</em> (internal) seems to be overcoming the other. The principles of <em>Takf</em><em>īr</em> basically attempt to determine those foundations and underpinnings of Islam, the denial of which identify <em>kufr</em> (disbelief) that persists within the heart. By this way the matters of <em>īmān</em>, that are in fact heart-relating ones, could be brought with the domain of ostensible legislation. Most often, because of <em>ta’w</em><em>īl</em>, the principles of <em>Takf</em><em>īr</em> become lose that gives rise to the dilemma of abuse of those principles. Then, crossing over the legislative boundaries these principles adapt some other aspects. The social aspect among those different aspects is very significant without which, the tradition of the application of <em>Takf</em><em>īr</em> may not be understood fully. In terms of application, <em>Takf</em><em>īr</em> deos not remain solely an academic-legal activity. Here the need is felt that <em>Takf</em><em>īr</em> should be discussed from various, and of course new, dimensions having the history thereof taken into account so that the tradition of <em>Takf</em><em>īr</em> may be given a new and appropriate dimension on the basis of fresh and principled study.</p> Muhammad Tehami Bashar Alawi Dr. Muhammad Akram Virk Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 19 40 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.u02 مخدوم محمد ہاشم ٹھٹوی : قرآنیات سے متعلق تصانیف کا تعارفی مطالعہ <p>Makhdoom Muhammad Hāshim Thattvī (1692- 1761) was one of the eminent Islamic scholars, authors, jurists, interpreters of Quran and Ḥadīth from Sindh. His expertise in various branches of Islamic knowledge is matchless. He made a great contribution toward understanding and interpreting Quran, Ḥadīth and Fiqh. He wrote approximately 350 books and booklets on various topics of Islamic sciences. His books are filled with precious Knowledge of Quran, ḤadIth and Fiqh. He has also produced great work in the field of Qur’ānic studies and wrote tafsīr in Arabic and Sindhi languages which is known as al-Tafsīr al-Hāshmī and Tafsīr-i-Hāshmī. This article presents an introductory study of his works on Qur’ānic sciences. It explores that Thattvī, has provided precious literal and exegetical meanings of Qur’ānic words. He interpreted the Quran with the help of Quran, ḥadīth and sayings of Prophet's companions.</p> Dr. Abdul Ghaffar Madani Khawaja Arshid Ali Ghulam Abbas Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 41 52 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.u03 امام ابن الملقنؒ اوران کی علمی وتصنیفی کاوشیں:ایک مطالعہ <p>I<strong>b</strong>n al-Mulaqqin-famous Shāfiʿī jurist, great Ḥadīth and Sīrah scholar Sheikh Sirāj al-Dīn Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar b. ʿAlī b. Aḥmad Ibn al-Mulaqqin (723–804/1323–1401), a writer of various voluminous volumes on variety of Islamic sciences mostly well-known prolific academic personality for his valuable scholarship in the field of <em>ḥ</em><em>ad</em><em>ī</em><em>th, S</em>ī<em>rah, fiqh, history and Muslim mysticism</em>. AlʿAsqalānī (d. 852 A.H.) the famous Egyptian scholar of Hadith and author of <em>magnum opus</em> “<em>Fat</em><em>ḥ</em><em> al-Bar</em><em>ī</em>”, was one of his disciple. While engaging himself in different academic aspects of hadith, he also penned down prolifically on numerous other aspects as well. He has been admired by his disciples and successors too like AlʿAsqalānī, al-, al-'Irāqī, and sibt al-ʿajmī and others high ranked scholars in Muslim history. This study deliberates historical approach to describe Ibn al-Mulaqqin’s biographical sketch along with his contribution towards Muslim scholarship. In the last phase of this article, special focus has been centered on his “<em>Gh</em><em>ā</em><em>yah al-S</em><em>ū</em><em>l f</em><em>ī</em><em> Kha</em><em>ṣā</em><em>i</em><em>ṣ</em><em> al-Ras</em><em>ū</em><em>l</em>” by exploring his methodology in detail.</p> Hafiz Muhammad Azeem Safdar Dr. Muhammad Feroz-ud-Din Shah Khagga Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 53 66 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.u04 امام مہدی سے متعلق احادیث کی مختلف تشریحات: پیر مہر علی شاہ کے نقطۂ نظر کا مطالعہ <p>Naturally, man is ever anxious to know its future. Semitic religions provide evidences regarding the governance of a justice person near the end of this world close to the end of time. Islam, being the youngest <em>Dīn</em>, also provides evidences through its divine book, Al-Quran, and sayings of the Last Prophet Muhammad(<em>ﷺ</em>)<em>۔</em> Muslim scholars put a considerable focus on Quranic and Hadith teaching in the perspective of Imam Mehdi, the last justice ruler. A non-Muslim minority in Pakistan made explanations of these Hadiths according to their fabricated proclivities to develop wrong inclinations among Muslims. P<em>ī</em>r Meher Alī Shāh did a remarkable and government record work on the Hadith regarding Imam Mehdi and rebuttal of wrong interpretations but academic research on his work is rare so there is need to elaborate the work for future educational and scholastic benefits. The article provides a critical explanation on views of Pīr Syed Meher Alī Shah regarding Hadiths about Imām Mehdī.</p> Hafiz Aziz Haider Dr Syed Aftab Alam Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 67 76 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.u05 جدید مغربی فلسفوں پرمحمد رفیع الدین کا نقد: "قرآن اور علم جدید" کا اختصاصی مطالعہ <p>This paper aims to investigate the critique of <em>Dr. Muhammad Raf</em><em>ī-ud-Dīn </em>(1904-1969), a prominent Muslim theorist and philosopher of subcontinent, on modern Western philosophies in his "<em>Quran aur </em><em>ʻIlm-i-Jadīd</em>". The referred book contains very useful discussions on six modern Western theories that are: the theory of evolution by Charles Darwin, theory of Instinct by William McDougall, the theory of Unconscious/ID (Sexuality) by Sigmund Freud, the theory of Unconscious/ID (Love of Superiority) by Alfred W. Adler, Socialism by Karl Marx and Nationalism by Machiavelli. The research focuses <em>Muhammad Raf</em><em>ī-ud-Dīn’s</em> general impression regarding under discussion Western philosophies, his method to deal with their challenge and his relevant arguments from the Quran. It finds that Muhammad<em> Raf</em><em>ī-ud-Dīn’s</em> study was in fact an attempt to restore the attractiveness and appeal of <em>Qur’</em><em>ānic</em> thought, which had become blurred by modern philosophical ideas. To him, these modern philosophical and scientific theories are not invalid in all respects rather their some aspects are in accordance with <em>Qur’</em><em>ānic</em> concepts.</p> Dr. Mohammad Tayyab Khan Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Arshad Iqbal Dr. Anwarullah Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 77 90 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.u06 ’’الفتنۃ ٗالکُبریٰ، عثمانؓ‘‘ از ڈاکٹر طہٰ حسین مترجم پروفیسر محمد منورمرزا :تحقیقی و تنقیدی جائزہ <p>This article is a critical study of <em>Prof. Muhammad Munawar`s</em> translated version of “<em>Al-Fitna-tul-Kubra</em>, <em>Usm</em><em>ā</em><em>n</em>”, by <em>Dr. Taha Hossian</em> an Egyptian man of letters. This book highlights the sensitive issues of Islamic history related to the martyrdom of Hazrat <em>Usm</em><em>ā</em><em>n</em> (RA). <em>Prof. Muhammad Munawwar</em> is inclined to faithful translation instead of idiomatic one which hampers not only the lucidity and rhythm but also the comprehension of the contents . Since the translator is a genuine writer and critic, the translation generally reflects the literary flavour. The sensitivity of the contents of the book demands a careful selection of words not only on the part of Dr. Taha Hossain but also the translator, <em>Prof. Muhammad Munawwar.</em> However, both of them laboured in terms of the use of diction to do justice with the sensitivity and criticality of the topic.</p> Riaz Ahmed Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Abrar Awan Dr Abdul Hameed Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 91 100 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.u07 معاصر اسلامی بینکاری کی شرعی بنیادیں: سیرت طیبہ کی روشنی میں ایک مطالعہ <p>Islam, a complete code of life deals with every aspect of life and ensures success for its followers both in this world and in the hereafter. Islam gives balanced economic system and prohibits illegitimate ways of earning and usury/interest. Islamic economic system is discussed almost in 80 verses of the Holy Quran. Muslim jurists have streamlined the terms and conditions for Islamic Banking but annual reports of the banks show their failure in compliance with the Islamic rules which consequently decreases the trust of the people in Islamic banking but it doesn’t mean that this system has drawbacks but the mechanism for the practical implementation of the Islamic rules needs revision, supervision and monitoring in a strict manner. This paper appraises the contemporary Islamic Banking in the light of Seerah.</p> Dr Ayesha Jadoon Dr Sadna zeb Dr Oumar Saleem Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 101 110 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.u08 اسلامی حدود: دائرۂ عمل اور منہجِ تنفیذ <p>These punishments prescribed by the religion of Islam are very just, at the same time they are in the interest of the people, human dignity, mutual respect, destruction of the family system, corruption of lineage, encroachment on people's property, abuse of human beings. To maintain the intellect and the ability to think and understand, to prevent many corruptions and evils, to cleanse society from crime and to establish and maintain public order. As the rain brings prosperity, the fields sway. The life of such subjects depends on the enforcement of Islamic punishments. The punishments for the crimes prescribed by the Qur'an and Sunnah are called (extreme crimes). These are adultery, slander and slander, stealing, drinking, fighting and apostasy. The punishment of adultery (in Islam) is for a virgin i.e., for both male and female to be hastened, while for those who are married it is to be stoned. The punishment for making false accusations and slanders is to inflict the same blows. The Shariah punishment for theft is hand-wringing. The penalty for alcoholism is 40 lashes or 40 or 80 lashes. Muharrabat means killing, hanging, deportation or amputation of hands and feet in the opposite direction for causing mischief in the land and the punishment for apostasy is murder. This will eradicate crime and disobedience and will save the life, property, honor and dignity of everyone. Love, compassion and brotherhood grow among each other. As a result, the earth spews out its treasures. And the rain of mercy falls from the sky. Hudud should not be recommended. Personal and spatial determination should be taken into consideration for the removal of Hudud. Doubts should be taken into consideration.</p> Hafiz Asif Ismail Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Abrar Awan Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 111 126 10.53762/alqamar.0.403.u09 غالب کا عرفانِ رسولﷺ: ایک مطالعہ <p>There is always an angle and expression of poetic harmony in Seerat-e-Rasool, in which the poets express their affection for the holy Prophet (PBUH). Every poet has embellished his work with such heartfelt affection for the holy Prophet (PBUH) in this field. In this regard, there is Ghalib’s perfection of affection as well as an expression of his thoughts about the Irfan-e-Rasool hidden in the unconscious. Ghalib’s deep passion for the admiration of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), has best been expressed in his Urdu and Persian works. That’s why; his work is replete with manifestations of admiration and affection for the the Holy Prophet (PBUH). The collective colour of this affection is manifested in the form of Islam, Allah, the Holy Prophet and the honor, respect and the mark of respect for the Ahly-e-Bayt. His Urdu and Persian poetry shows the depth of his religious thoughts, ideas, observations and experiences about Irfan-e-Rasool. We rarely find such things in Ghalib's practical life, but his work shows that the greatness of the Prophet was present in the depths of his heart , the expression and confession of which is revealed in his work. This article focuses on such hidden factors as are present in Ghalib's work.</p> Muhammad Shahzad Akhtar Biag Uzma Bukhari Yasir Zeeshan Mughal Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 127 138 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.u10 احادیث متعارضہ کے اختلاف کو تطبیق کے ذریعے دور کرنے کا امام طحاوی کا اسلوب <p>Contradictory <em>Ḥ</em><em>adi</em><em>̄</em><em>th</em> is a term that is used in <em>Ḥ</em><em>adi</em><em>̄</em><em>th</em> sciences when two or more Ḥadīths seem to be opposite to one another. Abu Ja’far al-Ṭaḥāwī (d321/933) has tried to resolve the contradiction of <em>Ḥ</em><em>adi</em><em>̄</em><em>ths</em> through nullification, preference and compatibility in his book Sharaḥ M’āni al-Athār. The question arises that how he resolved the contradiction of the Ḥadīths through compatibility. In this article, his method of conformity has been discussed with examples from his said book. He resolved the contradiction of Ḥadīths reported about right of pre-emption for neighbor by saying that these prophetic traditions explain one another. He also identified the meanings of <em>Ḥ</em><em>adi</em><em>̄</em><em>ths</em> reported about fasting after mid of Sha’bān and resolved the difference with conformity. He also discussed the matter of breaking fast due to wet cupping <em>(</em><em>Ḥ</em><em>ijama)</em> and resolved the contradiction of the <em>Ḥ</em><em>adi</em><em>̄</em><em>ths.</em></p> Dr. Muhammad Waris Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 139 146 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.u11 مکی عہد نبویﷺ کے وفود کی دعوتی خدمات : تجزیاتی مطالعہ <p>The chain of Da'wah to Allah continues from Adam (A.H). The preaching of the Oneness of Allah has been the first duty of the Holy Prophets. The Holy Prophet ﷺalso adopted the same duty and continued to preach Islam day and night. For this, He prepared his followers in a good way and also told them the method of preaching Islam to others. He who is guided by the Prophet of Allah does not need to be guided by anyone else. The Companions used to learn the style of preaching and convey this message to others in the best way. If we take a closer look at the time of the Prophetﷺ , it was a difficult stage in which all kinds of enemies were present. Those who took the name of Islam could not be tolerated under any circumstances. In the time of the Prophet ْﷺthe work of da'wah required great wisdom. The infidels of Makkah wanted to convert Muslims from Islam in every possible way. And they wanted to keep the same outdated system by practicing their religion. But the Companions of the Holy Prophet ﷺ who received the title of the Al.Sabiqoon Awaloon faced all sorts of problems and lit the candle of Islam which soon spread the light of Islam all over the world. The individual and collective efforts of the Companions in spreading Islam in the beginning of Islam cannot be forgotten. The Companions did not spare any effort to spread the religion of the Prophet ﷺ at the expense of their family, tribe and the infidels of Makkah.The Companions continued to perform this duty with full perseverance as per the instructions of the Holy Prophetﷺ .But the Prophet ﷺtaught his followers the method of Da'wah in such a way that they followed it and spread Islam to the world. This article gives an overview of the delegations that came from different parts of the world during the Makki erra. What was the attitude of the Prophet ﷺ towards these delegations and what teachings should he give to those whom he sent to other areas?۔ Even in this age, relations with other countries can be established only in accordance with the teachings of the Holy Prophetﷺ. Foreign relations and policy must also be formulated in accordance with Islamic principles in order to spread Islamic teachings effectively.</p> Dr. Tahir Aslam Dr. Asghar Ali khan Abid ul Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 147 160 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.u12 مستشرقین کے بارے میں سید ابو الحسن علی ندوی کے نقطۂ نظر کا مطالعہ <p>Sayed Abu Al-Hassan Ali Nadwi was known as one of the great personalities. His scholarly and literary research and authorship services are considered in the Islamic world. The Allah Almighty had endowed him with innumerable virtues and attributes. 'Maulana Ali Nadwi sincerely believed that the real threat to the modern world, especially the Muslim world, is neither the lack of material development nor the political disturbances, rather it’s the moral and spiritual decline. He firmly believed that Islam alone has the ability to overturn this and thus Muslims must wake up to make an effort in this regard. Syed Abu Al-Hasan Ali Nadwi’s emphasized to study the Western thoughts about Islam in present era. So in his valuable writings he has narrated the achievements of Orientalists to the Islamic branches of learning. According to him it would be sheer injustice if one were to deny the fact that numerous valuable manuscripts, historical documents and source materials on important topics have seen the light of the day through their efforts. It is also a reality that their endeavors is to create doubts about Islam and its law and culture in the minds of the Muslims especially youths. In this situation it is the duty of Muslims scholars that they should produce original work on different topics in keeping with the norms of modern scholarship so as counteract the negative influences exerted by the Orientalists as well as to provide the Muslim world with correct, authentic and dependable facts and concepts relating to Islam. This article will provide a comprehensive overview on Syed’s perspectives and opinions about the Orientalists.</p> Dr. Samina Saadia Dr. Farhat Aziz Talib Ali Awan Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 161 174 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.u13 عصری اردو تفاسیرمیں سائنسی اسلوبِ کی دعوتی اہمیت <p>Praise be to Allah. There are a large number of commentaries in Urdu commentaries that illustrate the scientific style of the Quran. In the Quran, Allah Almighty has encouraged people to look, think and examine in a scientific manner and has given the ability to solve all the problems. He also invited us to analyze in such a way that the questions that arise in the human mind can be answered and satisfaction can be obtained. For this, Allah Almighty says, "Who created the things of the universe?" Who is their creator? Along with this, there is also the matter of analyzing and examining in the Qur'an what was the fate of those who obeyed and disobeyed Allah Almighty, i.e. those who believe in Allah and disobedient are not equal because the destruction of the disobedient is in front of everyone. Therefore, a beautiful method of calling people to the Day of Judgment, which is called the scientific style, has made it possible for those who have intellect and wisdom to accept the message of truth. This is the miracle of the Quran.</p> Dr.Asjad Ali Dr. Abdul Aleem Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 175 190 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.u14 امیت رسولﷺ اور مستشرقین:منٹگمری واٹ اور رابرٹ اسپنسر کے افکار کا تجزیاتی مطالعہ <p>Holy Qur'an has been a topic of interest to many circles, including the Muslim and Western scholars. Many of the themes promoted by the Orientalists are generally related to the authenticity of the Qur'an. William Montgomery Watt and Robert Spencer are included in the circle of those western writers who have written down the commentary of the Quran with specific purpose. While interpreting the verses, they have mistranslated the term <em>“Umm</em><em>ī</em><em>”</em> and have offered different views on the meaning of "<em>Umm</em><em>ī</em>" which is used in the Qur’an as an attribute of the Prophet (PBUH). This word shows the miraculous signs of the heavenly Book descended upon the Prophet and the rightfulness of his mission but the aim of both the scholars is to prove false the claim of the miraculous style of the Qur’an. In this paper, an effort has been made to examine the arguments of both western scholar and deduce the actual position in this matter. In this research written with a descriptive and analytical approach, it is proved that according to Quran, sciences of Tafsir, Hadith literature, history and logic, Prophet Muhammad was illiterate since his birth until his death and did not know how to read or write.</p> Tariq Aziz Dr. Hafiz Muhammad khan Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 191 200 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.u15 علامہ اقبال کا تصور ِ جہاد: ایک مطالعہ <p><em>Jih</em><em>ā</em><em>d</em> is an Islamic term which is to be considered in wide range of meanings. However in Islamic etymological background, <em>Jih</em><em>ā</em><em>d</em> is waged against the transgressors, tyrants and those who rebel against an Islamic state. <em>All</em><em>ā</em><em>ma Iqb</em><em>ā</em><em>l's</em> concept of <em>Jih</em><em>ā</em><em>d</em> is more widened and he considers <em>Jih</em><em>ā</em><em>d</em> in the way of Allah as the emblem of establishing freedom, peace and eradicating every type of Muslims' exploitation. His juxtaposition to the concept of <em>Jih</em><em>ā</em><em>d</em> is not mere poetic, yet philosophical and practical due to that Muslims can acquire complete self -freedom, freedom from sins , freedom from internal and external subjugating forces and it helps Muslims to establish a peaceful society.</p> Dr. Tayyaba Nighat Dr. Shazia Andleeb Naila Iqbal Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 201 206 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.u16 ملتان کے اسلوب تعمیر و ثقافت پر تصوف کے اثرات: ایک تحقیقی مطالعہ <p>The architecture of any nation is a reflection of its social, cultural and religious needs. Religion has greatly influenced architecture. Religion gave the concept of worship. From which came the shrines which were built according to the beliefs of this religion. There is a deep imprint of Islam on architecture. The promotion of the burial of civilization and culture and literature in Multan is mostly attributed to the Sufis and the saints of Ghattam, because the foundation of the Sufis' humble and virtuous deeds was the result of their efforts to realize beauty and to create beauty. ۔ Behind these arts was the energy of Sufi beliefs, ideas and expressions, as well as the power of their cultural temperament and internal affairs.</p> Dr. Sobia khan Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 207 216 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.u17 المنهج النقدي عند الألوسي من خلال تفسير روح المعاني على الرازي:دراسة تحليلية نقدية <p>This article studies the criticism of Imām Shahaāb al-Dīn al-Ālūsī (1270AH/ 1803AD) in his Tafsir named “<em>R</em><em>ūh al-Ma̒ānī fī Tafsīr al-Quran al-̒Azeem wa Sab̒ al-Mathānī</em>” on Al-Rāzī. He is famous for his criticism and observations and his Tafsir is considered as an encyclopedia of the Exegesis due to it comprehensiveness and detailed discussion. Imam <em>al-</em><em>Ālūsī</em> has criticized in his tafsir on <em>Im</em><em>ām Fakhr Dīn Al-Rāzī</em> (606AH/ 1210AD) in so many issues. Imam Al-Razi is a prominent scholar of 6th century and the author of Tafsir “<em>Maf</em><em>ātīh al-Ghaib</em>” known as “ <em>Al-Tafs</em><em>īr Al-Kabīr</em>”. The criticism of Imam Al-Ālūsī on Imām Al-Razi is related to various branches of Islamic studies such as exegetical, grammatical, juristical, Linguistical etc. Here in this article we had studied few examples.</p> Muhammad Idrees Dr. Musaab Iftikhar khan Durrani Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 1 14 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.a01 استدراکات كلامية في تفسير"مفاتيح الغيب"للرازي علی القاضي عبد الجبار:دراسة تحليلية نقدية <p><em>Im</em><em>ā</em><em>m </em><em>Fakhr al-D</em><em>ī</em><em>n al-R</em><em>ā</em><em>z</em><em>ī</em> - Muslim theologian and scholar, universally acclaimed for his intellectual brilliance, and his extremely wide-ranging commentary on the Qur’an <em>Maf</em><em>āṭīḥ</em><em> al-Ghayb</em>, which ranks among the greatest works of its kind. Imām Razi’s rationalism holds an important place in the debate in the Islamic tradition on the harmonization of reason and revelation. <em>Istidr</em><em>ā</em><em>k</em> means correction of mistake, completion of deficiency and clarification of ambiguity. Islamic sciences have a long tradition of this area of research. The present article studies the juristic iIstidrāks <em>Im</em><em>ā</em><em>m </em><em>Fakhr al-D</em><em>ī</em><em>n al-R</em><em>ā</em><em>z</em><em>ī</em> in his Tafsir <em>Maf</em><em>āṭīḥ</em><em> al-Ghayb</em> on <em>Q</em><em>āzī </em><em>Abdul Jabb</em><em>ā</em><em>r Al-Mu</em><em>̒</em><em>tzilI</em>. It concludes that these scholar have been objective while criticizing or differing with others. They very politely pion out the mistakes of other scholars and try their best to guide their readers towards the accurate Islamic notions.</p> Rahim Ullah Janbaz Durrani Naeem khan Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Qamar 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 4 3 15 28 10.53762/alqamar.04.03.a02