اناجیلِ اربعہ پر ابن حزم کی تنقید کے شواہد

Evidences of Criticism on the Authenticity of four Gospels by Ibn-e-Hazm

Authors

  • Syed Adeel Shah Doctoral Candidate, Department of Islamic Studies, Al-Hamd Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Samreen Akram Doctoral Candidate, Department of Islamic Studies, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Majid Ali Teacher, Government Primary School, Naseer Pur, Malakwal, Mandi Bahaudin

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.53762/alqamar.05.01.u01

Keywords:

Ibn-e-Hazm, Kitab al-Fasl, Christianity, Bible, Gospels, History

Abstract

Ibn-e-Hazm is one of the prominent scholars of Islam who gained fame among Muslims and non-Muslims for his scholarly work about religious studies. Ibn-e-Hazm’s book “Kitab-ul-Fasl Fi al-Milal wa al-Ahail wa al-Nihal” is about comparative studies of religions. The book got popularity among Muslim and non-Muslim scholars and different critics are seen about his approach towards the understanding of world’s religions. The author of the article “The Encyclopedia of Islam” has claimed that Ibn-e-Hazm’s approach towards criticizing the historical authenticity of the Bible is not academic rather he wrote the chapter in his book with narrow-mindedness. This study deals with this allegation and the author has tried to find out the historical evidence presented by Christian scholars to prove that Ibn-e-Hazm’s way of putting forward his opinion is academically perfect and each of his arguments is built upon solid and irrefutable references.

References

R. Arnaldes, Ibn e Hazm, Encyclopedia of Islam, Brill, (1927), Vol 3, P. 795F

Ibn e Hazm, Al-Fisal Fi Al-Milal Wal Ahwa e Wal- Nihal, Maktaba Al-Slam Al-Aalamiyah, Qairo, 1964, V 2, P. 2

This introductory sentence is called “Testimonium Flavianum”

Paul Maier. The Church History, Kregel Publications, Michigan, U.S.A, (2007), P. 336–337

Ibid, P. 336-337

Schrecken berg, Jewish Traditions in Early Christian Literature, BRILL, (1992) .P. 38–41

James Dunn, Jesus Remembered, William B Publishing Company, Cambridge, U.K. (2003), P. 141

Craig A Evans, Jesus and His Contemporaries: Comparative Studies, Brill (2001), P. 316.

Henry Wansbrough. Jesus and the oral Gospel tradition, Sheffield Academic Press, England, (2004) p. 185

George Albert Wells, The Jesus Legend, Open Court Publishing Company, Chicago, (1996), P. 48

Robert Van Voorst, Jesus in history, thought, and culture, ABC-CLIO, LLC publishing company, Santa Barbara, California. (2003), P. 509–511

Feldman. Josephus, Judaism and Christianity. BRILL, (1987), P. 54, 57

For details , See:

• Robert E. Van Voorst, Jesus Outside the New Testament, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Michigan, (2000),P. 83

• Bruce D. Chilton, James the Just and Christian Origins, Brill, (1999), P. 199-232

• John Painter, Just James: The Brother of Jesus in History and Tradition, Bloomsbury T&T Clark, Edinburgh, (2005) P. 134-141

For the statement of Josephus and its authenticity, See:

• Robert Grant, A historical introduction to the New Testament, William Collins sons and Company Limited, London, (1974), P. 291

• X.L. Dufour, The Gospels and the Jesus of Histon, trans. and ed. by J. McHugh., Collins Sons and Co, London (1968), P. 35 f

• Georg-es Berguer, Sonte Aspects of the Life of Jesus, trans. by EleanorStimson Brooks and van Wyck Brooks, (London, Williams and Norgate, 1923), P. 65

• W. H. Allen, the Standard Jewish Encyclopedia, Cecil Roth B, London, (1966) P.1064

Kitab ul Fisal, V 2, P. 20, 37, 40

Ibn e Hazm, Al-Usool Wal Furoo, Berute, (2001), Vol 1, P. 212

Kitab ul Fisal. V 2, P. 200

Timothy, 3/16, Pakistan Bible Society, Lahore9

– Peter, 1/21

For details, See:

• Burnett Streeter, The Washington Manuscript of the Gospels, Literary Licensing, United States (2011) P. 439

• J.N.D Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines, HarperOne, San Francisco, (1935), P. 59

• Merrill Tenney, The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, Zondervan Publishing House, Michigan, United States, (1975) vol. 4, P. 311.

Early Christian Doctrines, P. 61 f

Raymond Brown, Critical Meaning of the Bible, Paulist Publications, New York, (1981), P.18–19

David Pallin, "Revelation", (N.D.C.T.), P.505.

JW Sweetman, Islam and Christian Theology, Whitefriars Press, London , (1955), vol. 1, P. 156

Kitab ul Fisal, Vol 2, P. 32, 44, 47, 50, 60, 62 2

Adolf Julicher, An Introduction to the New Testament, English translation by Janet Penrose Ward, snnith Elder and company, London, (1904), P. 317 and 30.

See for details:

• Richardson, Preface to the Bible Study, Student Christian Movement Press, London, (1943), P. 23

• R. E. Brown, "Inspiration and Inerrancy" (J. B. C.), vol. 2, p. 503.

William Barclay, The Gospels and Acts, S.C.M, London (1976) vol. l, P. 10

The Gospels and Acts, P. 48

Paul Althaus, The so-called Kerygma and the historical Jesus, Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, (1959) P. 21

The Gospels and the Jesus of History, P. 21

Mackintosh, The Doctrine of the Person of Jesus Christ, T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh, (1927), P. 6 ff.

Luke, 3/1

Encyclopedia Britannica, (1958), Vol 3, P. 16017

William Ralph Inge, Christian Ethics and Modern Problems, Kessinger Publishing, LLC, London, (1930), P. 43

Kitab ul Fisal, V 3, P. 322

Ibid

Saint John Chrysostom, Homilies on the Gospel of John , New City Press, U.S.A (2001), Part l, P.4

See

Usool Wal Furoo, V1, P. 212

Al-Jaahiz, Salaas u Rasaail, Matbaa Salafiyah, Qairo, (1344), P. 24

• 4

Abu al-hassan Ali bin Hussain Masoodi, Murawwaj al-Zahab wa Meaadin ul Johar, Matbaa Al-Sadaat, Qairo, (1963), Vol 3, P. 62

M. R. James (trans.), The apocryphal New testament, Oxford University Press, (1924), P. 13 f.

Ali bin Riban Al-Tabri, Al-Deen Wa al-Daulah, Dar ul Aafaq Al-Jadeed, Berut, (1983), P. 202

ابن الندیم "الفہرست" میں لکھتے ہیں کہ "یہودیوں اور عیسائیوں کے عالم یونس سے میں نے پوچھا تو اس نے مجھے دو مجموعے بتائے جو "السورۃ العاتقہ" اور "السورۃ الحادثہ" یعنی عہد نامہ قدیم اور عہد نامہ جدید ہیں۔

Ibn e Nadeem, Al-Fehrist, Dar ul marifat, Berut, P. 41

Kitab ul Fisal, V 2, P. 20

Al-Fehristm P. 41

D. Paterson Smyth, Our Bible in the Making, Marston and Company, Ltd, UK, (1914), P. 169

B.R Rattey, Growth and Structure of the Gospels, Oxford University Press, London, (1948), P. 9

Homilies on the Gospel of John , Part 1, P. 4.

Kitab ul Fisal, V 2, P. 20 0

مسیحی محققین کا گمان ہے کہ عمومی طور پر حواریوں کو کیتھولک حواری ہی مانا جاتا تھا۔دیکھیے:

E. Ratcliffe, The Birth of Christianity in the Light of To-day, Allenson and Company, London (1936), P. 101

ابن خلدون نے "کیتالیکون" لفظ استعمال کیا ہے۔دیکھیے:

Abdul Rehman Ibn e Khuldoon, Al-Muqaddimah, Dar ul Arab, Damuscus, (2004), Vol 2, P. 296

Ahmed Bin Ali Muqrizi, Kitab ul Mawaiz, Muassisa tul Furqan Li Turaas al-Islami, London, (2004), Vol 2, P. 48

کتاب الفصل، ج 1، ص 22

Carra De Vaux, "Injil", The Encyclopedia of Islam, vol. 3, p. 1205

Kitab ul Fisal, Vol 2, P. 20

Al-Muqaddimah, Vol 2, P. 299

Ibn e Tamiyah, Al-Jawab ul Saheeh, Dar ul Aasimah, Riyadh, (1999), Vol 3, P. 211

Islam and Christian Theology, vol. l, p. 22.

The Gospels and Acts, vol. l, p. 149

Alfred Plummer, An Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to St. Matthew, Eerdmans Publishing Company, U.S.A (1956), p. V Ill.

Leon-Dufour, The Gospels and the Jesus of History, P. 109

Willoughby C. Allen, "Matthew (Gospel)" (D.C.G.), vol. 2, p. 141.

The Gospels and the Jesus of History, P.110.

Hamari Kutub e Muqaddisah, P. 451

Walter Frederic Adeney, The Expositor’s Bible, Zondervan, U.S.A, (1981) P. 286.

See:

Kitab ul Fisal, Vol 2, P. 20

Al-Jawab ul Saheeh, V 3. P. 5

Kitab ul Mawaiz, Vol 2, P. 482

For details, See:

Al-Jawab ul Saheeh, Vol 3, P. 5

Kitab ul Mawaiz, Vol2, P. 483

Kitab ul Fisal, Vol 2, P. 20

Al-Jawab ul Saheeh, Vol 3, P. 5

An Exegetical commentary on the Gospel according to St. Mathew, P. 8

See:

• T.K. Cheyne & J. Sutherland, Encyclopedia Biblica, Adam and Charles Blackmomi, London, vol. 2, P. 1890;

• J. E. L. Oulton, Eusebius Ecclesiastical History, William Heinemann Ltd. London, (1980), vol. l, P. 251, 295;

• H. S. Shelton, "The Gospels and the New Papyri",”Hibbert Journal“ (January,1945), P. 161.

G. T Menly, Hamari Kutub e Muqaddasa, Maseehi Ishaat Khana, Lahore, (2017), P. 451

See:

• Duling Dennis. The Gospel of Matthew, Wiley-Blackwell, (2010). P. 298–99;

• R. T. France, The Gospel of Matthew, Eerdmans; New International Commentary on the New Testament edition, (2007), P. 19

See:

Delbert Burkett, An introduction to the New Testament and the origins of Christianity. Cambridge University Press, (2002) P. 174

Kitab ul Fisal, V 2, P. 2

J. C. Fenton, Saint Matthew, Cox and Wyman, London (1976), P. 12.

Hamari Kutub e Muqaddisa, P. 459

Al-Jawab ul Saheeh, V 3, P. 51

Kitab ul Fisal, V 2, P. 20

Al-Masudi, Al-Tanbeeh Wal Ashraf, Maktaba Khiyaat, Berut, (1965), P. 137

Kitab ul Fisal, V 2, P. 20

D. E. Nineham, Saint Mark, Pen-guin Books, Cox and Wyman, London, (1976), P. 42

Brown, "The Gospel According to St. Mctrk" (J. B. C.), vol. 2, p. 21.251

مسیحی مصنفین نے بھی اس کے مقامِ کتابت میں اختلاف کیا ہے۔ان کے ہاں روم، گلیل، انطاکیہ (سلطنت روما کا تیسرا بڑا شہر)،جنوبی شام وغیرہ کا ذکر موجود ہے۔دیکھیے

Delbert Burkett, An introduction to the New Testament and the origins of Christianity. Cambridge University Press, (2002), 157

Kitab ul Fisal, V 2, P. 20

Abu Abdullah bin Abdullah Al-Tarjuman, Tuhfat ul Areeb Fi Al-Radd ala ahl Saleeb, Dar al-Maarif, Qairo, (1983), P. 16

Pheme Perkins, The Synoptic Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles, Westminster John Knox Press, U.S.A, (1998), P. 241–58.

An introduction to the New Testament and the origins of Christianity, P. 156

Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus. Penguin, UK, (1995), P. 63–64

Kitab ul Fisal, V 2, P. 20

Ibn e Khuldoon, Al-Ibar, bait ul Afkaar Al-Dauliyah, Riyadh, P. 294

Salas Al-Risail, P. 24

Colossians, 4/14

A. Plunmet, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to St. Luke, T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh, (1942), P. XI

See:

• A.R.C. Leaney, The Gospel according to St. Luke, Adam and Charles Black, London, (1966), P. 4

• Caird, Saint Luke, Penguin Books, Cox and Wyman, London, (1977), P. 17

The Gospels and Acts , vol. l, P. 187

The Gospel according to St. Luke, P. 1

Kitab ul Fisal, V 2, P. 20

See:

• Islam and Christian Theology, vol. l, P. 124.

• The Gospels and Acts , vol. l, P. 194

Kitab ul Fisla, V 2 , P. 20

Tuhfat ul Areeb, P. 16

Muhammad bin Yosuf Al-Aamri, Kitab ul Aalaam Bi Munaaqib ul Islam,Dar ul Kutub ul Arabi, Qairo, (1967), P. 205

Kitab ul Fisal, Vol 2, P. 62

Kitab ul Fisal, V2, P. 20

C. K Barrett, New Testament Background, S.P.C.K. (1957), P. 83.

Ibid, P. 136

An introduction to the New Testament and the origins of Christianity, P. 214

Hamari Kkutub e Muqaddisa, P. 473

Montgomery Watt, The Majesty that was Islam, Praeger Publishers, New York, Washington, (1974), P. 82

Elaine Pagels, the Gnostic Gospels, Penguin Books, England (1990) P. 15

Rehmatullah Keranwi, Izhar ul Haq, Taha Publishers, London, (1990), V3, P. 145

Ibid, P. 150

Published

2022-03-31

How to Cite

Syed Adeel Shah, Samreen Akram, and Muhammad Majid Ali. 2022. “اناجیلِ اربعہ پر ابن حزم کی تنقید کے شواہد: Evidences of Criticism on the Authenticity of Four Gospels by Ibn-E-Hazm”. Al-Qamar 5 (1):1-18. https://doi.org/10.53762/alqamar.05.01.u01.