جدید مغربی فلسفوں پرمحمد رفیع الدین کا نقد: "قرآن اور علم جدید" کا اختصاصی مطالعہ
Muhammad Rafī-ud-Dīn’s Critique of Modern Western Philosophy: A Study of "Quran aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd"
Keywords:Muhammad Rafī-ud-Dīn, Western thoughts, critique
This paper aims to investigate the critique of Dr. Muhammad Rafī-ud-Dīn (1904-1969), a prominent Muslim theorist and philosopher of subcontinent, on modern Western philosophies in his "Quran aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd". The referred book contains very useful discussions on six modern Western theories that are: the theory of evolution by Charles Darwin, theory of Instinct by William McDougall, the theory of Unconscious/ID (Sexuality) by Sigmund Freud, the theory of Unconscious/ID (Love of Superiority) by Alfred W. Adler, Socialism by Karl Marx and Nationalism by Machiavelli. The research focuses Muhammad Rafī-ud-Dīn’s general impression regarding under discussion Western philosophies, his method to deal with their challenge and his relevant arguments from the Quran. It finds that Muhammad Rafī-ud-Dīn’s study was in fact an attempt to restore the attractiveness and appeal of Qur’ānic thought, which had become blurred by modern philosophical ideas. To him, these modern philosophical and scientific theories are not invalid in all respects rather their some aspects are in accordance with Qur’ānic concepts.
. Dr. Rafī-ud-Dīn was a renowned Muslim scholar, thinker and philosopher, born in Jammu, State of Jammu & Kashmir in 1904. He passed intermediate in science, honours in Persian, Master in Arabic, Phd in Philosophy(1949) and D.Litt in Educational Philosophy(1965). Commencing his career, he taught Arabic and Persian from Sri Partab College Srinagar (1927 to 1932) and Prince wales College Jammu(1933-1946). He was awarded the degree of Ph.D on his remarkable work titled “Ideology of the Future” by University of Punjab, Lahore in 1949. From 1945 to 1947 he served as principal in Sri Kiran Singh Inter College(now Post Graduate College) Mīrpure Jammu & Kashmir. From 1948 to 1953 he worked as research officer in Institute of Islamic Reconstruction and Institute of Islamic Culture. He remained director of Iqbal Academy Karachi from 1953 to 1965 He was honored with D.Litt. upon his contribution titled “First Principles of Education”. He founded All Pakistan Islamic Education Congress in 1966 and carried out his work as its director. He was died in a fatal traffic accident in the age of 65 years in 1969 and was buried in Sialkot.
. Dr. Rafī-ud-Dīn wrote this book during his stay at Institute of Islamic Culture. 8th edition of this book comprises of 583 pages with preface written by Muzaffar Hussain and Naveed Ahmad. Book is divided into two parts first part is challenge and the second one is Jawāb e challenge. According to Maulānā, Abdul Mājid Daryābādī the book is remarkable and unique in the subject matter among the other books based on solid logical and philosophical arguments(Maulānā, Abdul Mājid Daryābādī, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd; Abdul Mājid Daryaabadī kī Nazar mein, Monthly Beidāri 3, No. 23(2005).). Dr. Rafī-ud-Dīn ascribed the book to the man of future who declared all ideologies the ignorance of ancient time except the ideology of the Holy Quran.
. Charles Robert Darwin was an English biologist, naturalist and geologist. He presented his well-known theory of evolution in his book “On the Origin of Species”.
. William McDougall was British-born American renowned psychologist of 20th century, spent first part of his life in England and second in United States of America. His popularity is because of his theory of instinct.
. Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis.
. Austrian medical doctor and psychotherapist and he was considered a founder of Individual psychology.
. German philosopher, socialist and economist. He initiated his popular theory of socialism.
. Italian historian, politician, diplomate and philosopher. He was founder of modern political science. He authored famous book on political science titled: “The Prince”.
. Dr. Muhammad Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd(Lāhore: Dr. Rafī-ud-Dīn Foundation, 2016), 34-35.
. Dr. Muhammad Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 35.
Dr. Muhammad Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 73-76.
Dr. Muhammad Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 78.
. Dr. Muhammad Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 67-68.
See: Dr. Muhammad Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 131.Second part of the book is its core part that covers more than four hundred pages.
. See: Dr. Muhammad Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 133-135.
See: Dr. Muhammad Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 135-136.
See: Dr. Muhammad Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 144.
. Al-Dahr, 76:1-2.
. Nūh, 71:13, 14 and 17.
. Luqmān, 31:34, Al-Mu’minūn, 23:12, Al-Hijr, 15:28; Al-Sajdah, 32: 7-9.
Al-‘alaq, 96: 2.
. Al-Nisā’, 4:1.
Al-Inshiqāq, 84: 16-20.
Al-Saff, 61:9; Al-Mā’idah, 5:3; Al-Isrā’, 17:79; Al-Tahrīm, 66:8.
. Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 162-163.
.Al-Infitār, 82: 6-8.
Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 219.
Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 220.
. Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 220- 236.
. Al-Rūm, 30:30.
. Al-A‘rāf, 7: 172.
. The id is the source of all psychic energy, making it the primary component of personality. The ego develops from the id and ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real world. The super-ego refers to the internalization of cultural rules, mainly taught by parents applying their guidance and influence.(Schacter Daniel. Psychology(New York: Worth Publishers), 418, Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 329.)
Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 332.
. Al-Ra‘d, 13:28.
. Al-Zāriyāt, 51:56.
. Al-Infitār, 82: 10-12.
. Al-Isra’, 17:13-14.
. Al-Kahf, 18:49.
. Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 328-331.
Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 51, 52.
. Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 397.
. Al-Inshiqāq, 84:16-20.
. Al-Saff, 61:9.
.The actual words of Sahih Bukhari are: " خير الناس قرني، ثم الذين يلونهم، ثم الذين يلونهم۔۔۔
(Bukhari, Muhammad bin Ismā ‘il, Al-Sahih, Kitab al Shahādat, Bab: La yushhadu ‘ala Shahadati Jur ‘iza Ushhida, Hadīth: 2652).
. Muhammd bin Abdullah al-Khatīb, Mishkat al- Masābīh(Beirut: Al-maktab al-Islami)3:1770.). According to Ibn e Hajar, this hadith is hasan and owing to several chains it is considered to be Sahih.(Ahmad bin ‘ali bin Hajar ‘asqalānī, Fath ul Bari Sharh Sahih AL-Bukhārī (Beirut: Darul Ma‘rifah, 1379 A.H.), 7:6.
Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 401, 406.
. Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 410.
. ‘al Imrān, 3:92, Al-Humazah, 104:1-3.
Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 416-419.
. Muhammad bin ‘isa Tirmizi, Sunan al Tirmizi, Abwāb Al-Zakāh, Bāb Mā Jā’ ‘anna fi al-Mali Haqqān Siwa Al-Zakāh, Hadīth No. 659.
. Muslim bin Hajjāj Al-Qushairī, Al-Sahih, ed. Fu’ād Abdul- Bāqī, Kitab Al-Hudud, Bāb ‘istihbab Al-Mu’asāt bi, fudhul Al-Māl, Hadīth No. 1728.
. Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 417.
. Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 501.
. Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 56.
. Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 571-572.
. Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 570.
. Al-Ahzāb, 33:4.
. Al-Ahzāb, 33:4.
. Al-Hujurāt, 49: 13.
. Al-Rum, 30:22.
Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 567- 568.
. Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 572.
Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 578-579.
. It is as accord with the verse: بمقتضائے آیت: سَنُرِيهِمْ آيَاتِنَا فِي الْآفَاقِ وَفِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ Hā Mīm Al-Sajdah, 41:53.
.Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 13-14.
.Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 15-16 .
.Al-Mursalāt, 77: 50.
Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 79.
. Yāsīn, 36: 2.
. Rafī-ud-Dīn, Qurʼān aur ʻIlm-i-Jadīd, 101, 107, 108.
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